Health and Medicine Encyclopedia - Vol 22

Health and Medicine Encyclopedia

Pseudomonas Infections - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A pseudomonas infection is caused by a bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and may affect any part of the body. In most cases, however, pseudomonas infections strike only persons who are very ill, usually hospitalized. P. aeruginosa is a rod-shaped organism that can be found in soil, water, plants, and animals. Because it rarely causes disease in healthy persons, but infects those who are already s…

7 minute read

Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Pseudoxanthoma elascticum (PXE) is an inherited connective tissue disorder in which the elastic fibers present in the skin, eyes, and cardiovascular system gradually become calcified and inelastic. PXE was first reported in 1881 by Rigal, but the defect in elastic fibers was described in 1986 by Darier, who gave the condition its name. PXE is also known as Grönblad-Strandberg-Touraine syndr…

8 minute read

Psoriasis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Named for the Greek word psōra meaning "itch," psoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious disease characterized by inflamed lesions covered with silvery-white scabs of dead skin. Psoriasis, which affects at least four million Americans, is slightly more common in women than in men. Although the disease can develop at any time, 10–15% of all cases are diagnosed in children u…

10 minute read

Psoriatic Arthritis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Psoriatic arthritis is a form of arthritic joint disease associated with the chronic skin scaling and fingernail changes seen in psoriasis. Physicians recognize a number of different forms of psoriatic arthritis. In some patients, the arthritic symptoms will affect the small joints at the ends of the fingers and toes. In others, symptoms will affect joints on one side of the body but not on the ot…

4 minute read

Psychiatric Confinement - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks

Psychiatric confinement is the use of restraints to detain a person in need of care and further evaluation. The purpose of restraint and confinement are crucial since they have a medico legal implication. The primary purpose for such intervention is typically an urgent or emergent condition that could cause danger to the affected person or others, or cause severe disability to the extent whereby t…

2 minute read

Psychoanalysis - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Risks, Normal results

Psychoanalysis is a form of psychotherapy used by qualified psychotherapists to treat patients who have a range of mild to moderate chronic life problems. It is related to a specific body of theories about the relationships between conscious and unconscious mental processes, and should not be used as a synonym for psychotherapy in general. Psychoanalysis is done one-onone with the patient and the …

8 minute read

Psychological Tests - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Normal results

Psychological tests are written, visual, or verbal evaluations administered to assess the cognitive and emotional functioning of children and adults. Psychological tests are used to assess a variety of mental abilities and attributes, including achievement and ability, personality, and neurological functioning. For children, academic achievement, ability, and intelligence tests may be used as a to…

5 minute read

Psychosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Psychosis is a symptom or feature of mental illness typically characterized by radical changes in personality, impaired functioning, and a distorted or non-existent sense of objective reality. Patients suffering from psychosis have impaired reality testing; that is, they are unable to distinguish personal, subjective experience from the reality of the external world. They experience hallucinations…

6 minute read

Psychosocial Disorders - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A psychosocial disorder is a mental illness caused or influenced by life experiences, as well as maladjusted cognitive and behavioral processes. The term psychosocial refers to the psychological and social factors that influence mental health. Social influences such as peer pressure, parental support, cultural and religious background, socioeconomic status, and interpersonal relationships all help…

6 minute read

Psychosurgery - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Psychosurgery involves severing or otherwise disabling areas of the brain to treat a personality disorder, behavior disorder, or other mental illness. Modern psychosurgical techniques target the pathways between the limbic system (the portion of the brain on the inner edge of the cerebral cortex) that is believed to regulate emotions, and the frontal cortex, where thought processes are seated. Lob…

4 minute read

Ptosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Ptosis is the term used for a drooping upper eyelid. Ptosis, also called blepharoptosis, can affect one or both eyes. The eyelids serve to protect and lubricate the outer eye. The upper eyelid is lifted by a muscle called the levator muscle. Inside the back part of the lid is a tarsal plate which adds rigidity to the lid. The levator muscle is attached to the tarsal plate by a flat tendon called t…

3 minute read

Puberty - Definition, Description, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Puberty is the period of human development during which physical growth and sexual maturation occurs. Beginning as early as age eight in girls—and two years later, on average, in boys—the hypothalamus (part of the brain) signals hormonal change that stimulates the pituitary. In turn, the pituitary releases its own hormones called gonadotrophins that stimulate the gonads and adrenals.…

4 minute read

Puerperal Infection - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

The term puerperal infection refers to a bacterial infection following childbirth. The infection may also be referred to as puerperal or postpartum fever. The genital tract, particularly the uterus, is the most commonly infected site. In some cases infection can spread to other points in the body. Widespread infection, or sepsis, is a rare, but potentially fatal complication. Puerperal infection a…

6 minute read

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease of the lungs. In this disease, also called alveolar proteinosis or phospholipidosis, gas exchange in the lungs is progressively impaired by the accumulation of phospholipids, compounds widely found in other living cells of the body. The alveoli are filled with this substance that renders them less effective in protecting the lung. This may exp…

2 minute read

Pulmonary Artery Catheterization - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which a small catheter is inserted through a neck, arm, chest, or thigh vein and maneuvered into the right side of the heart, in order to measure pressures at different spots in the heart. Pulmonary artery catheterization is performed to: Pulmonary artery catheterization is a potentially complicated and invasive procedure. The doctor mu…

3 minute read

Pulmonary Edema - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Pulmonary edema is a condition in which fluid accumulates in the lungs, usually because the heart's left ventricle does not pump adequately. The build-up of fluid in the spaces outside the blood vessels of the lungs is called pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema is a common complication of heart disorders, and most cases of the condition are associated with heart failure. Pulmonary edema can be…

5 minute read

Pulmonary Embolism - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Pulmonary embolism is an obstruction of a blood vessel in the lungs, usually due to a blood clot, which blocks a coronary artery. Pulmonary embolism is a fairly common condition that can be fatal. According to the American Heart Association, an estimated 600,000 Americans develop pulmonary embolism annually; 60,000 die from it. As many as 25,000 Americans are hospitalized each year for pulmonary e…

6 minute read

Pulmonary Fibrosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Pulmonary fibrosis is scarring in the lungs. Pulmonary fibrosis develops when the alveoli, tiny air sacs that transfer oxygen to the blood, become damaged and inflamed. The body tries to heal the damage with scars, but these scars collapse the alveoli and make the lungs less elastic. If the cycle of inflammation and scarring continues, the lungs become increasingly unable to deliver oxygen to the …

5 minute read

Pulmonary Function Test - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Pulmonary function tests are a group of procedures that measure the function of the lungs, revealing problems in the way a patient breathes. The tests can determine the cause of shortness of breath and may help confirm lung diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis or emphysema. The tests also are performed before any major lung surgery to make sure the person won't be disabled by having a reduc…

3 minute read

Pulmonary Hypertension - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Pulmonary hypertension is a rare lung disorder characterized by increased pressure in the pulmonary artery. The pulmonary artery carries oxygen-poor blood from the lower chamber on the right side of the heart (right ventricle) to the lungs where it picks up oxygen. Pulmonary hypertension is present when the blood pressure in the circulation of the lungs is measured at greater than 25 mm of mercury…

4 minute read

Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Pulmonary valve insufficiency is a disorder involving a defect of the valve located in the pulmonary artery. This disorder is also known as pulmonary valve regurgitation or pulmonary incompetence. The pulmonary valve is the structure in the pulmonary artery consisting of three flaps, which open and close during each heartbeat. The flaps keep blood from flowing back into the heart from the pulmonar…

3 minute read

Pulmonary Valve Stenosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Pulmonary valve stenosis is a congenital heart defect in which blood flow from the heart to the pulmonary artery is blocked. Pulmonary valve stenosis is an obstruction in the pulmonary valve, located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. Normally, the pulmonary valve opens to let blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs. When the pulmonary valve is malformed, it forces the …

3 minute read

Pyelonephritis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney and upper urinary tract that usually results from noncontagious bacterial infection of the bladder (cystitis). Acute pyelonephritis is most common in adult females but can affect people of either sex and any age. Its onset is usually sudden, with symptoms that are often mistaken as the results of straining the lower back. Pyelonephritis is often comp…

5 minute read

Pyloric Stenosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Pyloric stenosis refers to a narrowing of the passage between the stomach and the small intestine. The condition, which affects infants during the first several weeks of life, can be corrected effectively with surgery. Frequent vomiting may be an indication of pyloric stenosis. The pylorus is the passage between the stomach and the small intestine. During the digestive process food passes through …

3 minute read

Pyloroplasty - Definition, Purpose, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Pyloroplasty is an elective surgical procedure in which the lower portion of the stomach, the pylorus, is cut and resutured, to relax the muscle and widen the opening into the intestine. Pyloroplasty is a treatment for high-risk patients for gastric or peptic ulcer disease. A peptic ulcer is a well-defined sore on the stomach where the lining of the stomach or duodenum has been eaten way by stomac…

3 minute read

Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is part of a group of disorders called hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemias. Hereditary nonspherocytic anemias are rare genetic conditions that affect the red blood cells. PKD is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme, pyruvate kinase. Although PKD is the second most common of the hereditary nonspherocytic anemias, it is still rare, with the incidence estimate…

7 minute read

Q Fever - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Q fever is an illness caused by a type of bacteria, Coxiella burnetii, resulting in a fever and rash. C. burnetii lives in many different kinds of animals, including cattle, sheep, goats, ticks, cats, rabbits, birds, and dogs. In sheep and cattle, for example, the bacteria tends to accumulate in large numbers in the female's uterus (the organ where lambs and calves develop) and udder. Other…

3 minute read

Qigong - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance, Training and certification

Qigong (pronounced "chee-gung," also spelled chi kung) is translated from the Chinese to mean "energy cultivation" or "working with the life energy." Qigong is an ancient Chinese system of postures, exercises, breathing techniques, and meditations. Its techniques are designed to improve and enhance the body's qi. According to traditional Chinese phi…

9 minute read

Rabies - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Rabies is an acute viral disease of the central nervous system that affects humans and other mammals. It is almost exclusively transmitted through saliva from the bite of an infected animal. Another name for the disease is hydrophobia, which literally means "fear of water," a symptom shared by half of all people infected with rabies. Other symptoms include fever, depression, confusio…

8 minute read

Radial Keratotomy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Radial keratotomy (RK) is a type of eye surgery used to correct myopia (nearsightedness). It works by changing the shape of the cornea—the transparent part of the eye that covers the iris and the pupil. About 25–30% of all people in the world are nearsighted and need eyeglasses or contact lenses for distance vision to be clear. For a number of reasons, some people don't like w…

9 minute read

Radiation Injuries - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Treatment, Alternative treatment

Radiation injuries is damage caused by ionizing radiation emitted by the sun, x-ray machines, and radioactive elements. Radio and television signals, radar, heat, infrared, ultraviolet, sunlight, starlight, cosmic rays, gamma rays, and x rays all belong to the electromagnetic spectrum and differ only in their relative energy, frequency, and wavelength. These waves all travel at the speed of light,…

11 minute read

Radiation Therapy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Radiation therapy, sometimes called radiotherapy, x-ray therapy radiation treatment, cobalt therapy, electron beam therapy, or irradiation uses high energy, penetrating waves or particles such as x rays, gamma rays, proton rays, or neutron rays to destroy cancer cells or keep them from reproducing. The purpose of radiation therapy is to kill or damage cancer cells. Radiation therapy is a common fo…

11 minute read

Radical Neck Dissection - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Radical neck dissection is an operation used to remove cancerous tissue in the head and neck. The purpose of radical neck dissection is to remove lymph nodes and other structures in the head and neck that are likely or proven to be malignant. Variations on A specimen taken from radical neck surgery. (Custom Medical Stock Photo. Reproduced by permission.) neck dissections exist depending on …

5 minute read

Radioactive Implants - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Abnormal results

Radioactive implants are devices that are placed directly within cancerous tissue or tumors, in order to deliver radiation therapy intended to kill cancerous cells. With the use of radioactive implants, the tumor is subjected to radioactive activity over a longer period of time, as compared to external beam therapy. The patient is required to remain in his bed or room during the treatment. During …

3 minute read

Rape and Sexual Assault - Definition, Description, Treatment, What To Do If You Are Raped, Forensic medical examination, Prevention

The various definitions of rape range from the broad (coercing an individual to engage in any sexual act) to the specific (forcing a woman to submit to sexual intercourse). The United States Code includes the crime of rape under the more comprehensive term "sexual abuse." Two types of sexual assault are defined in the code: sexual abuse and aggravated sexual abuse. Sexual abuse inclu…

12 minute read

Rashes - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

The popular term for a group of spots or red, inflamed skin that is usually a symptom of an underlying condition or disorder. Often temporary, a rash is only rarely a sign of a serious problem. A rash may occur on only one area of the skin, or it could cover almost all of the body. Also, a rash may or may not be itchy. Depending on how it looks, a rash may be described as: There are many theories …

4 minute read

Rat-Bite Fever - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Rat-bite fever refers to an infection which develops after having been bitten or scratched by an infected animal. Rat-bite fever occurs most often among laboratory workers who handle lab rats in their jobs, and among people who live in poor conditions, with rodent infestation. Children are particularly likely to be bitten by rodents infesting their home, and are therefore most likely to contract r…

3 minute read

Raynaud's Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Raynaud's disease refers to a disorder in which the fingers or toes (digits) suddenly experience decreased blood circulation. It is characterized by repeated episodes of color changes of the skin of digits on cold exposure or emotional stress. Raynaud's disease can be classified as one of two types: primary (or idiopathic) and secondary (also called Raynaud's phenomenon). Prim…

9 minute read

Recompression Treatment - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Recompression treatment is the use of elevated pressure to treat conditions within the body after it has been subjected to a rapid decrease in pressure. It also includes hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Recompression treatment is used to overcome the adverse effects of gas embolism and decompression sickness (sometimes called the bends) in underwater divers who breathe compressed air. It is also approve…

4 minute read

Rectal Cancer - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

The rectum is the portion of the large bowel that lies in the pelvis, terminating at the anus. Cancer of the rectum is the disease characterized by the development of malignant cells in the lining or epithelium of the rectum. Malignant cells have changed such that they lose normal control mechanisms governing growth. These cells may invade surrounding local tissue or they may spread throughout the…

20 minute read

Rectal Examination - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Rectal examination or digital rectal examination (DRE) is performed by means of inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and palpating (feeling) for lumps. DRE is used as a screening tool to locate rectal cancer and prostate cancer. It is also used as a diagnostic test to find non-cancerous abnormalities within the rectum like hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or congenital deformities that…

2 minute read

Rectal Polyps - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Rectal polyps are tissue growths that arise from the wall of the rectum and protrude into it. They may be either benign or malignant (cancerous). The rectum is the last segment of the large intestine, ending in the anus, the opening to the exterior of the body. Rectal polyps are quite common. They occur in 7–50% of all people, and in two thirds of people over age 60. Rectal polyps can be ei…

3 minute read

Rectal Prolapse - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Rectal prolapse is protrusion of rectal tissue through the anus to the exterior of the body. The rectum is the final section of the large intestine. Rectal prolapse can be either partial or complete. In partial prolapse, only the mucosa layer (mucous membrane) of the rectum extends outside the body. The projection is generally 0.75–1.5 in (2–4 cm) long. In complete prolapse, called p…

3 minute read

Recurrent Miscarriage - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Recurrent miscarriage is defined as three or more miscarriages of a fetus before 20 weeks of gestation (i.e., before the fetus can live outside the womb). Also referred to as spontaneous abortion, miscarriage occurs in 15–20% of all conceptions. The majority of miscarriages occur during the first trimester. The number of previous miscarriages does not affect subsequent full-term pregnancies…

2 minute read

Red Blood Cell Indices - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Red blood cell indices are measurements that describe the size and oxygen-carrying protein (hemoglobin) content of red blood cells. The indices are used to help in the differential diagnosis of anemia. They are also called red cell absolute values or erythrocyte indices. Anemia includes a variety of conditions with the same outcome: a person's blood cannot carry as much oxygen as it should.…

7 minute read

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is the feeling of pain associated with evidence of minor nerve injury. Historically, reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) was noticed during the civil war in patients who suffered pain following gunshot wounds that affected the median nerve (a major nerve in the arm). In 1867 the condition was called causalgia form the Greek term meaning "burning pain." Cau…

2 minute read

Reflex Tests - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Normal results, Abnormal results

Reflex tests are simple physical tests of nervous system function. A reflex is a simple nerve circuit. A stimulus, such as a light tap with a rubber hammer, causes sensory neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to the spinal cord. Here, the signals are conveyed both to the brain and to nerves that control muscles affected by the stimulus. Without any brain intervention, these muscles may respond to…

3 minute read

Reflexology - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance, Training and certification

Reflexology is a therapeutic method of relieving pain by stimulating predefined pressure points on the feet and hands. This controlled pressure alleviates the source of the discomfort. In the absence of any particular malady or abnormality, reflexology may be as effective for promoting good health and for preventing illness as it may be for relieving symptoms of stress, injury, and illness. Reflex…

12 minute read

Rehabilitation - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description

Rehabilitation is a treatment or treatments designed to facilitate the process of recovery from injury, illness, or disease to as normal a condition as possible. A patient (holding paddles) is undergoing a hydrotherapy treatment. (Photograph by Will & Deni McIntyre, Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The purpose of rehabilitation is to restore some or all of the patie…

6 minute read

Reiki - Definition, Purpose, Description, Side effects, Research and general acceptance, Training and certification

Reiki is a form of therapy that uses simple hands-on, no-touch, and visualization techniques, with the goal of improving the flow of life energy in a person. Reiki (pronounced ray-key) means "universal life energy" in Japanese, and Reiki practitioners are trained to detect and alleviate problems of energy flow on the physical, emotional, and spiritual level. Reiki touch therapy is us…

11 minute read

Reiter's Syndrome - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Reiter's syndrome (RS), which is also known as arthritis urethritica, venereal arthritis, reactive arthritis, and polyarteritis enterica, is a form of arthritis that affects the eyes, urethra, and skin, as well as the joints. It was first described by Hans Reiter, a German physician, during World War I. Reiter's syndrome is marked by a cluster of symptoms in different organ systems o…

4 minute read

Relapsing Fever - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Relapsing fever refers to two similar illnesses, both of which cause high fevers. The fevers resolve, only to recur again within about a week. Relapsing fever is caused by spiral-shaped bacteria of the genus Borrelia. This bacterium lives in rodents and in insects, specifically ticks and body lice. The form of relapsing fever acquired from ticks is slightly different from that acquired from body l…

5 minute read

Relapsing Polychondritis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Relapsing polychondritis is a disease characterized by autoimmune-like episodic or progressive inflammation of cartilage and other connective tissue, such as the nose, ears, throat, joints, kidneys, and heart. Cartilage is a tough, flexible tissue that turns into bone in many places in the body. Bones all start out as cartilage in the fetus. Consequently, children have more cartilage than adults. …

3 minute read

Renal Artery Occlusion - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Renal artery occlusion is a blockage of the major arteries that supply blood to the kidneys caused by thrombosis or embolism. Renal artery occlusion occurs when the flow of blood from the arteries leading to the kidneys becomes blocked by a blood clot or cholesterol emboli. The lack of oxygenation can lead to necrosis (tissue death) and ultimately, chronic kidney failure. Renal arterial occlusion …

3 minute read

Renal Artery Stenosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Renal artery stenosis is a blockage or narrowing of the major arteries that supply blood to the kidneys. Renal artery stenosis occurs when the flow of blood from the arteries leading to the kidneys is constricted by tissue or artherosclerotic plaque. This narrowing of the arteries diminishes the blood supply to the kidneys, which can cause them to atrophy and may ultimately lead to kidney failure.…

3 minute read

Renal Tubular Acidosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a condition characterized by too much acid in the body due to a defect in kidney function. Chemical balance is critical to the body's functioning. Therefore, the body controls its chemicals very strictly. The acid-base balance must be between a pH of7.35 and 7.45 or trouble will start. Every other chemical in the body is affected by the acid-base balance. The…

3 minute read

Renal Vein Thrombosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Renal vein thrombosis develops when a blood clot forms in the renal vein, which carries blood from the kidneys back to the heart. The disorder is not common. Renal vein thrombosis occurs in both infants and adults. Onset of the disorder can be rapid (acute) or gradual. The number of people who suffer from renal vein thrombosis is difficult to determine, as many people do not show symptoms, and the…

2 minute read

Renovascular Hypertension - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Renovascular hypertension is a secondary form of high blood pressure caused by a narrowing of the renal artery. Primary hypertension, or high blood pressure, affects millions of Americans. It accounts for over 90% of all cases of hypertension and develops without apparent causes. It is helpful for the clinician to know if a secondary disease ease is present and may be contributing to the high pres…

3 minute read

Respiratory Acidosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Respiratory acidosis is a condition in which a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood produces a shift in the body's pH balance and causes the body's system to become more acidic. This condition is brought about by a problem either involving the lungs and respiratory system or signals from the brain that control breathing. Respiratory acidosis is an acid imbalance in the body caused …

3 minute read

Respiratory Alkalosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Respiratory alkalosis is a condition where the amount of carbon dioxide found in the blood drops to a level below normal range. This condition produces a shift in the body's pH balance and causes the body's system to become more alkaline. This condition is brought on by rapid, deep breathing called hyperventilation. Respiratory alkalosis is an alkali imbalance in the body caused by a…

3 minute read