Health and Medicine Encyclopedia - Vol 6

Health and Medicine Encyclopedia

Carotid Sinus Massage - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Carotid sinus massage involves rubbing the large part of the arterial wall at the point where the common carotid artery, located in the neck, divides into its two main branches. Sinus, in this case, means an area in a blood vessel that is bigger than the rest of the vessel. This is a normal dilation of the vessel. Located in the neck just below the angle of the jaw, the carotid sinus sits above th…

2 minute read

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a disorder caused by compression at the wrist of the median nerve supplying the hand, causing numbness and tingling. The carpal tunnel is an area in the wrist where the bones and ligaments create a small passageway for the median nerve. The median nerve is responsible for both sensation and movement in the hand, in particular the thumb and first three fingers. When the me…

6 minute read

Cat-Scratch Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Cat-scratch disease is an uncommon infection that typically results from a cat's scratch or bite. Most sufferers experience only moderate discomfort and find that their symptoms clear up without any lasting harm after a few weeks or months. Professional medical treatment is rarely needed. Cat-scratch disease (also called cat-scratch fever) is caused by the Bartonella henselae bacterium, whi…

4 minute read

Cataract Surgery - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Cataract surgery is a procedure performed to remove a cloudy lens from the eye; usually an intraocular lens is implanted at the same time. The purpose of cataract surgery is to restore clear vision. It is indicated when cloudy vision due to cataracts has progressed to such an extent that it interferes with normal daily activities. Cataract surgery is not performed on both eyes at once. To avoid ri…

5 minute read

Cataracts - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A cataract is a cloudiness or opacity in the normally transparent crystalline lens of the eye. This cloudiness can cause a decrease in vision and may lead to eventual blindness. The human eye has several parts. The outer layer of the eyeball consists of a transparent dome-shaped cornea and an opaque, white sclera. The cornea and sclera help protect the eye. The next layer includes the iris, pupil,…

10 minute read

Catatonia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Catatonia is a condition marked by changes in muscle tone or activity associated with a large number of serious mental and physical illnesses. There are two distinct sets of symptoms that are characteristic of this condition. In catatonic stupor the individual experiences a deficit of motor (movement) activity that can render him/her motionless. Catatonic excitement, or excessive movement, is asso…

4 minute read

Catecholamines Tests - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Catecholamines is a collective term for the hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Manufactured chiefly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal glands, these hormones are involved in readying the body for the "fight-or-flight" response (also known as the alarm reaction). When these hormones are released, the heart beats stronger and faster, blood pressure rises, more bloo…

5 minute read

Catheter Ablation - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Catheter ablation of an irregular heartbeat involves having a tube (a catheter) inserted into the heart through During catheter ablation, a long flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a vein in the patient's groin and guided toward the heart. A special x-ray machine called a fluoroscope helps the electrophysiologist visualize correct placement. (Photograph by Collette Placek. …

4 minute read

Celiac Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Celiac disease is a disease of the digestive system that damages the small intestine and interferes with the absorption of nutrients from food. Celiac disease occurs when the body reacts abnormally to gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and possibly oats. When someone with celiac disease eats foods containing gluten, that person's immune system causes an inflammatory response in …

11 minute read

Cell Therapy - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance

Cell therapy is the transplantation of human or animal cells to replace or repair damaged tissue and/or cells. Cell therapy has been used successfully to rebuild damaged cartilage in joints, repair spinal cord injuries, strengthen a weakened immune system, treat autoimmune diseases such as AIDS, and help patients with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's di…

7 minute read

Central Nervous System Depressants - Definition, Purpose, Description, Precautions, Side Effects, Interactions

Central nervous system (CNS) depressants are drugs that can be used to slow down brain activity. CNS depressants may be prescribed by a physician to treat anxiety, muscle tension, pain, insomnia, acute stress reactions, panic attacks, and seizure disorders. In higher doses, some CNS depressants may be used as general anesthetics. Throughout history, humans have sought relief from anxiety and insom…

2 minute read

Central Nervous System Infections - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

The central nervous system, or CNS, comprises the brain, the spinal cord, and associated membranes. Under some circumstances, bacteria may enter areas of the CNS. If this occurs, abscesses or empyemas may be established. In general, the CNS is well defended against infection. The spine and brain are sheathed in tough, protective membranes. The outermost membrane, the dura mater, and the next layer…

4 minute read

Central Nervous System Stimulants - Definition, Purpose, Description, Precautions

Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are medicines that speed up physical and mental processes. Central nervous system stimulants are used to treat conditions characterized by lack of adrenergic stimulation, including narcolepsy and neonatal apnea. Additionally, methylphenidate (Ritalin) and dextroamphetamine sulfate (Dexedrine) are used for their paradoxical effect in attention-deficit hyperac…

4 minute read

Cephalosporins - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Cephalosporins are medicines that kill bacteria or prevent their growth. Cephalosporins are used to treat infections in different parts of the body—the ears, nose, throat, lungs, sinuses, and skin, for example. Physicians may prescribe these drugs to treat pneumonia, strep throat, staph infections, tonsillitis, bronchitis, and gonorrhea. These drugs will not work for colds, flu, and other i…

5 minute read

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is also known as congophilic angiopathy or cerebrovascular amyloidosis. It is a disease of small blood vessels in the brain in which deposits of amyloid protein in the vessel walls may lead to stroke, brain hemorrhage, or dementia. Amyloid protein resembles a starch and is deposited in tissues during the course of certain chronic diseases. CAA may affect patients …

10 minute read

Cerebral Aneurysm - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A cerebral aneurysm occurs at a weak point in the wall of a blood vessel (artery) that supplies blood to the brain. Because of the flaw, the artery wall bulges outward and fills with blood. This bulge is called an aneurysm. An aneurysm can rupture, spilling blood into the surrounding body tissue. A ruptured cerebral aneurysm can cause permanent brain damage, disability, or death. A cerebral aneury…

10 minute read

Cerebral Palsy - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Cerebral palsy (CP) is the term used for a group of nonprogressive disorders of movement and posture caused by abnormal development of, or damage to, motor control centers of the brain. CP is caused by events before, during, or after birth. The abnormalities of muscle control that define CP are often accompanied by other neurological and physical abnormalities. Voluntary movement (walking, graspin…

20 minute read

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a laboratory test to examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. This fluid is a clear, watery liquid that protects the central nervous system from injury and cushions it from the surrounding bone structure. It contains a variety of substances, particularly glucose (sugar), protein, and white blood cells from the immune system. The flu…

8 minute read

Cerumen Impaction - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Cerumen impaction is a condition in which earwax has become tightly packed in the external ear canal to the point that the canal is blocked. Cerumen impaction develops when earwax accumulates in the inner part of the ear canal and blocks the eardrum. It affects between 2–6% of the general population in the United States. Impaction does not happen under normal circumstances because cerumen i…

5 minute read

Cervical Cancer - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention, Special concerns

Cervical cancer is a disease in which the cells of the cervix become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably, forming tumors. In the United States, cervical cancer is the fifth most common cancer among women aged 35–54, and the third most common cancer of the female reproductive tract. In some developing countries, it is the most common type of cancer. It generally begins as an abnormalit…

19 minute read

Cervical Conization - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Cervical conization is both a diagnostic and treatment tool used to detect and treat abnormalities of the cervix. It is also known as a cone biopsy or cold knife cone biopsy. Cervical conization is performed if the results of a cervical biopsy have found a precancerous condition in the cervix. The cervix is the small cylindrical organ at the lower part of the uterus, which separates the uterus fro…

3 minute read

Cervical Disk Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Cervical disk disease refers to a gradual deterioration of the spongy disks in the top part of the spine. The spine is made up of 33 bones called vertebrae separated by spongy rings of elastic material. These rings, known as disks, are often compared to shock absorbers because they help to cushion the vertebrae. Just as importantly, they also make it possible to turn the head and neck. Over time, …

3 minute read

Cervical Spondylosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Cervical spondylosis refers to common age-related changes in the area of the spine at the back of the neck. With age, the vertebrae (the component bones of the spine) gradually form bone spurs, and their shock-absorbing disks slowly shrink. These changes can alter the alignment and stability of the spine. They may go unnoticed, or they may produce problems related to pressure on the spine and asso…

11 minute read

Cervicitis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Cervicitis is an inflammation of the cervix. Cervicitis is a inflammation of the cervix (the opening into the uterus). This inflammation can be chronic and may or may not have an identified cause. The most common cause of cervicitis is infection, either local or as a result of various sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. Cervicitis can also be caused by birth control devi…

2 minute read

Cesarean Section - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

A cesarean section is a surgical procedure in which incisions are made through a woman's abdomen and uterus to deliver her baby. This baby is being delivered by cesarean section. (Photograph by John Smith, Custom Medical Stock Photo.) Cesarean sections, also called c-sections, are performed whenever abnormal conditions complicate labor and vaginal delivery, threatening the life or he…

11 minute read

Chagas' Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Chagas' disease is named after Dr. Carlos Chagas who first found the organism in the early 1900s. It involves damage to the nerves that control the heart, digestive and other organs, and eventually leads to damage to these organs. Worldwide, Chagas' disease affects over 15 million persons, and kills 50,000 each year. Researchers believe that the parasite that causes the disease is on…

4 minute read

Chancroid - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial infection that is characterized by painful sores on the genitals. Chancroid is an infection of the genitals that is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi. Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease, which means that it is spread from person to person almost always by sexual contact. However, there have been a few cases in whi…

6 minute read

Charcoal, Activated - Definition, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Activated charcoal is a fine, black, odorless, and tasteless powder. It is made from wood or other materials that have been exposed to very high temperatures in an airless environment. It is then treated, or activated, to increase its ability to adsorb by reheating with oxidizing gas or other chemicals to break it into a very fine powder. Activated charcoal is pure carbon specially processed to ma…

7 minute read

Charcot Marie Tooth Disease - Definition, Description, Demographics, Signs and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT) is the name of a group of inherited disorders of the nerves in the peripheral nervous system (nerves throughout the body that communicate motor and sensory information to and from the spinal cord) causing weakness and loss of sensation in the limbs. CMT is named for the three neurologists who first described the condition in the late 1800s. It is also known as her…

13 minute read

Charcot's Joints - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Charcot's joints is a progressive degenerative disease of the joints caused by nerve damage resulting in the loss of ability to feel pain in the joint and instability of the joint. Charcot's joints, also called neuropathic joint disease, is the result of two conditions present in the joint. The first factor is the inability to feel pain in the joint due to nerve damage. The second fa…

2 minute read

Chelation Therapy - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance

Chelation therapy is an intravenous treatment designed to bind heavy metals in the body in order to treat heavy metal toxicity. Proponents claim it also treats coronary artery disease and other illnesses that may be linked to damage from free radicals (reactive molecules). The benefits of EDTA chelation for the treatment of lead poisoning and excessively high calcium levels are undisputed. The cla…

5 minute read

Chemonucleolysis - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Chemonucleolysis is a medical procedure that involves the dissolving of the gelatinous cushioning material in an intervertebral disk by the injection of an enzyme such as chymopapain. Between each vertebra lies a disk of cushioning material that keeps the spinal bones from rubbing together and absorbs some of the shock to the spine from body movements. In the center of the disk is soft, gelatinous…

3 minute read

Chemotherapy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Chemotherapy is treatment of cancer with anticancer drugs. The main purpose of chemotherapy is to kill cancer cells. It is usually used to treat patients with cancer that has spread from the place in the body where it started (metastasized). Chemotherapy destroys cancer cells anywhere in the body. It even kills cells that have broken off from the main tumor and traveled through the blood or lymph …

11 minute read

Chest Drainage Therapy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Chest drainage therapy involves the removal of air, blood, pus, or other secretions from the chest cavity. Chest drainage therapy is done to relieve pressure on the lungs, and remove fluid that could promote infection. Installing a chest drainage tube can be either an emergency or a planned procedure. Removing air or fluids from the chest involves the insertion of a tube through the skin and the m…

4 minute read

Chest Physical Therapy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Chest physical therapy is the term for a group of treatments designed to improve respiratory efficiency, promote expansion of the lungs, strengthen respiratory muscles, and eliminate secretions from the respiratory system. The purpose of chest physical therapy, also called chest physiotherapy, is to help patients breathe more freely and to get more oxygen into the body. Chest physical therapy incl…

6 minute read

Chest X Ray - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

A chest x ray is a procedure used to evaluate organs and structures within the chest for symptoms of disease. Chest x rays include views of the lungs, heart, small portions of the gastrointestinal tract, thyroid gland and the bones of the chest area. X rays are a form of radiation A normal chest x ray of a child. (Photograph by Peter Berndt, M.D., P.A, Custom Medical Stock Photo. Reproduced by…

6 minute read

Chickenpox - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Chickenpox (also called varicella) is a common and extremely infectious childhood disease that also affects adults on occasion. It produces an itchy, blistery rash that typically lasts about a week and is sometimes accompanied by a fever or other symptoms. A single attack of chickenpox almost always confers lifelong immunity against the disease. Because the symptoms of chickenpox are easily recogn…

12 minute read

Child Abuse - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Child Abuse: Signs And Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Child abuse is the blanket term for four types of child mistreatment: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. In many cases children are the victims of more than one type of abuse. The abusers can be parents or other family members, caretakers such as teachers and babysitters, acquaintances (including other children), and (in rare instances) strangers. Child abuse was once view…

10 minute read

Childbirth - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Childbirth includes both labor (the process of birth) and delivery (the birth itself); it refers to the entire process as an infant makes its way from the womb down the birth canal to the outside world. Childbirth usually begins spontaneously, following about 280 days after conception, but it may be started by artificial means if the pregnancy continues past 42 weeks gestation. The average length …

17 minute read

Children's Health - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Leading Causes Of Illness/Injury In Adolescents

Children's health encompasses the physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being of children from infancy through adolescence. All children should have regular well-child check ups according to the schedule recommended by their physician or pediatrician. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) advises that children be seen for well-baby check ups at two weeks, two months, four months, …

15 minute read

Chiropractic - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance

Chiropractic is from Greek words meaning done by hand. It is grounded in the principle that the body can heal itself when the skeletal system is correctly aligned and the nervous system is functioning properly. To achieve this, the practitioner uses his or her hands or an adjusting tool to perform specific manipulations of the vertebrae. When these bones of the spine are not correctly articulated,…

13 minute read

Chlamydial Pneumonia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Chlamydial pneumonia refers to one of several types of pneumonia that can be caused by various types of the bacteria known as Chlamydia. Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. The air sacs (alveoli) and/or the tissues of the lungs become swollen, and the alveoli may fill with pus or fluid. This prevents the lungs from taking in sufficient oxygen, which deprives the blood and the rest of the body&…

4 minute read

Choking - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Choking is the inability to breathe because the trachea is blocked, constricted, or swollen shut. Choking is a medical emergency. When a person is choking, air cannot reach the lungs. If the airways cannot be cleared, death follows rapidly. Anyone can choke, but choking is more common in children than in adults. Choking is a common cause of accidental death in young children who are apt to put toy…

3 minute read

Cholangitis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

The term cholangitis means inflammation of the bile ducts. The term applies to inflammation of any portion of the bile ducts, which carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and intestine. The inflammation is produced by bacterial infection or sometimes other causes. Bile, which is needed for digestion, is produced in the liver and then enters the common bile duct (CBD) through the hepatic duct…

12 minute read

Cholecystectomy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks

A cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder. The two basic types of this procedure are open cholecystectomy and the laparoscopic approach. It is estimated that the laparoscopic procedure is currently used for approximately 80% of cases. A cholecystectomy is performed to treat cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. In cholelithiasis, gallstones of varying shapes and sizes form from the …

4 minute read

Cholecystitis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Cholecystitis refers to a painful inflammation of the gallbladder's wall. The disorder can occur a single time (acute), or can recur multiple times (chronic). The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ in the upper right hand corner of the abdomen. It is connected by a series of ducts (tube-like channels) to the liver, pancreas, and duodenum (first part of the small intestine). To aid in…

7 minute read

Cholera - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Cholera is an acute illness characterized by watery diarrhea that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera is spread by eating food or drinking water contaminated with the bacteria. Although cholera was a public health problem in the United States and Europe a hundred years ago, modern sanitation and the treatment of drinking water have virtually eliminated the disease in developed coun…

7 minute read

Cholestasis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Cholestasis is a condition caused by rapidly developing (acute) or long-term (chronic) interruption in the excretion of bile (a digestive fluid that helps the body process fat). The term is taken from the Greek chole, bile, and stasis, standing still. Cholestasis is caused by obstruction within the liver (intrahepatic) or outside the liver (extrahepatic). The obstruction causes bile salts, the bil…

8 minute read

Cholesterol, High - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Cholesterol is a fatty substance found in animal tissue and is an important component to the human body. It is manufactured in the liver and carried throughout the body in the bloodstream. Problems can occur when too much cholesterol forms an accumulation of plaque on blood vessel walls, which impedes blood flow to the heart and other organs. The highest cholesterol content is found in meat, poult…

10 minute read

Cholesterol-Reducing Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Cholesterol-reducing drugs are medicines that lower the amount of cholesterol (a fat-like substance) in the blood. Cholesterol is a chemical that can both benefit and harm the body. On the good side, cholesterol plays important roles in the structure of cells and in the production of hormones. But too much cholesterol in the blood can lead to heart and blood vessel disease. To complicate matters, …

9 minute read

Cholesterol Test - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

The cholesterol test is a quantitative analysis of the cholesterol levels in a sample of the patient's blood. Total serum cholesterol (TC) is the measurement routinely taken. Doctors sometimes order a complete lipoprotein profile to better evaluate the risk for atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease, or CAD). The full lipoprotein profile also includes measurements of triglyceride levels (…

8 minute read

Cholinergic Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects

Cholinergic drugs are medications that produce the same effects as the parasympathetic nervous system. Cholinergic drugs produce the same effects as acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is the most common neurohormone of the parasympathetic nervous system, the part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the every day work of the body. While the sympathetic nervous system acts during times of exc…

2 minute read

Chondromalacia Patellae - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatments, Prognosis, Prevention

Chondromalacia patellae refers to the progressive erosion of the articular cartilage of the knee joint, that is the cartilage underlying the kneecap (patella) that articulates with the knee joint. Chondromalacia patellae (CMP), also known as patello-femoral pain syndrome or patello-femoral stress syndrome, is a syndrome that causes pain/discomfort at the front of the knee. It is associated with ir…

3 minute read

Choriocarcinoma - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A choriocarcinoma is type of cancer germ cell containing trophoblast cells. Choriocarcinomas are cancers that develop from germ cells, cells that ordinarily turn into sperm or eggs. Choriocarcinomas resemble the cells that surround an embryo in the uterus. Most of these cancers form inside the reproductive organs. Some originate in the testes or ovaries, especially in young adults. Others develop …

5 minute read

Chorionic Villus Sampling - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS), also known as chorionic villus biopsy, is a prenatal test that can detect genetic and chromosomal abnormalities of an unborn baby. Chorionic villus sampling is performed on pregnant women who are at risk for carrying a fetus with a genetic or chromosomal defect. Although it carries a slightly higher risk, CVS may be used in place of amniocentesis for women who have…

9 minute read

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a condition that causes extreme tiredness. People with CFS have debilitating fatigue that lasts for six months or longer. They also have many other symptoms. Some of these are pain in the joints and muscles, headache, and sore throat. CFS does not have a known cause, but appears to result from a combination of factors. CFS is the most common name for this disorder…

10 minute read

Chronic Granulomatous Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder in which white blood cells lose their ability to destroy certain bacteria and fungi. CGD is an X-linked genetic disease, meaning the defective gene is carried on the X chromosome (one of the sex chromosomes). Females have two copies of the X chromosome, whereas males have one X and one Y. CGD also is a recessive defect meaning that both …

3 minute read

Chronic Kidney Failure - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Chronic kidney failure occurs when disease or disorder damages the kidneys so that they are no longer capable of adequately removing fluids and wastes from the body or of maintaining the proper level of certain kidney-regulated chemicals in the bloodstream. Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic renal failure, affects over 250,000 Americans annually. It is caused by a number of diseases and…

9 minute read

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Chronic obstructive lung disease, also known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is a general term for a group of conditions in which there is persistent difficulty in expelling (or exhaling) air from the lungs. COPD commonly refers to two related, progressive diseases of the respiratory system, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Because smoking is the major cause of both diseases, chr…

9 minute read