Health and Medicine Encyclopedia - Vol 10

Health and Medicine Encyclopedia

Enterostomy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

An enterostomy is an operation in which the surgeon makes a passage into the patient's small intestine through the abdomen with an opening to allow for drainage or to insert a tube for feeding. The opening is called a stoma, from the Greek word for mouth. Enterostomies may be either temporary or permanent. They are classified according to the part of the intestine that is used to create the…

8 minute read

Enterovirus Infections - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Enteroviruses are so named because they reproduce initially in the gastrointestinal tract after infection occurs. Despite, this, they usually do not lead to intestinal symptoms; rather it is their spread to organs, such as the nervous system, heart, skin, and others that causes disease. Enteroviruses are part of a larger group of viruses known as Picornaviruses. The word comes from the combination…

7 minute read

Enzyme Therapy - Definition, Purpose, Description, 7Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance

Enyzme therapy is a plan of dietary supplements of plant and animal enzymes used to facilitate the digestive process and improve the body's ability to maintain balanced metabolism. In traditional medicine, enzyme supplements are often prescribed for patients suffering from disorders that affect the digestive process, such as cystic fibrosis, Gaucher's disease, and celiac disease. A p…

4 minute read

Eosinophilic Pneumonia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Eosinophilic pneumonia is a group of diseases in which there is an above normal number of eosinophils in the lungs and blood. Eosinophilia is an increase in the number of eosinophils. Eosinophilic pneumonia is characterized by a large number of eosinophils in the lungs, usually in the absence of an infectious disease. Eosinophils are one of the white blood cells and are classified as a granulocyte…

2 minute read

Epidermolysis Bullosa - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of rare inherited skin diseases that are characterized by the development of blisters following minimal pressure to the skin. Blistering often appears in infancy in response to simply being held or handled. In rarer forms of the disorder, EB can be life-threatening. There is no cure for the disorder. Treatment focuses on preventing and treating wounds and infe…

5 minute read

Epididymitis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Epididymitis is inflammation or infection of the epididymis. In this long coiled tube attached to the upper part of each testicle, sperm mature and are stored before ejaculation. Epididymitis is the most common cause of pain in the scrotum. The acute form is usually associated with the most severe pain and swelling. If symptoms last for more than six weeks after treatment begins, the condition is …

3 minute read

Epiglottitis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Epiglottitis is an infection of the epiglottis, which can lead to severe airway obstruction. When air is inhaled (inspired), it passes through the nose and the nasopharynx or through the mouth and the oropharynx. These are both connected to the larynx, a tube made of cartilage. The air continues down the larynx to the trachea. The trachea then splits into two branches, the left and right bronchi (…

5 minute read

Episiotomy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

An episiotomy is a surgical incision made in the area between the vagina and anus (perineum). This is done during the last stages of labor and delivery to expand the opening of the vagina to prevent tearing during the delivery of the baby. This procedure is usually done during the delivery or birthing process when the vaginal opening does not stretch enough to allow the baby to be delivered withou…

6 minute read

Epstein-Barr Virus Test - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

The Epstein-Barr virus test is a blood test, or group of tests, to determine the presence or absence of antibodies in the blood stream directed against proteins of the Epstein-Barr virus, the cause of infectious mononucleosis. The test is primarily used to detect whether first time infection (called primary infection) with the Epstein-Barr virus is currently occurring, or has occurred within a sho…

5 minute read

Erysipelas - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Erysipelas is a skin infection that often follows strep throat. Erysipelas, also called St. Anthony's fire, is caused by infection by Group A Streptococci. This same type of bacteria is responsible for such infections as strep throat, and infections of both surgical and other kinds of wounds in the skin. The infection occurs most often in young infants and the elderly. Erysipelas usually oc…

3 minute read

Erythema Multiforme - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Erythema multiforme is a skin disease that causes lesions and redness around the lesions. Erythema multiforme appears on the skin and the mucous membranes (the lining of the mouth, digestive tract, vagina, and other organs). Large, symmetrical red blotches appear all over the skin in a circular pattern. On mucous membranes, it begins as blisters and progresses to ulcers. A more advanced form, call…

1 minute read

Erythema Nodosum - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Erythema nodosum is a skin disorder characterized by painful red nodules appearing mostly on the shins. Erythema nodosum is an eruption of tender red lumps on both shins and occasionally the arms and face. Bruising often accompanies the nodule formation. Erythema nodosum is most prevalent in young adults. Erythema nodosum can be caused by many important and treatable diseases. Among them are tuber…

1 minute read

Erythroblastosis Fetalis - Definition, Description, Cause and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Erythroblastosis fetalis refers to two potentially disabling or fatal blood disorders in infants: Rh incompatibility disease and ABO incompatibility disease. Either disease may be apparent before birth and can cause fetal death in some cases. The disorder is caused by incompatibility between a mother's blood and her unborn baby's blood. Because of the incompatibility, the mother�…

10 minute read

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Normal results, Abnormal results

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), or sedimentation rate (sed rate), is a measure of the settling of red blood cells in a tube of blood during one hour. The rate is an indication of inflammation and increases in many diseases. ESR is increased in rheumatoid diseases, most infections, and in cancer. An advanced rate doesn't diagnose a specific disease, but it does indicate that an und…

3 minute read

Erythromycins - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Erythromycins are medicines that kill bacteria or prevent their growth. Erythromycins are antibiotics, medicines used to treat infections caused by microorganisms. Physicians prescribe these drugs for many types of infections caused by bacteria, including strep throat, sinus infections, pneumonia, ear infections, tonsillitis, bronchitis, gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and urinary tr…

5 minute read

Erythropoietin Test - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Erythropoietin, also called EPO, is a type of protein called a glycoprotein that is formed mainly in the kidneys to stimulate the production of red blood cells. The erythropoietin (EPO) test is used to determine if hormonal secretion is causing changes in the red blood cells. The test has great value in evaluating low hemoglobin (anemia), and another disorder called polycythemia, in which unusuall…

3 minute read

Escherichia Coli - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

E. coli (Escherichia coli) is one of several types of bacteria that normally inhabit the intestine of humans and animals (commensal organism). Some strains of E. coli are capable of causing disease under certain conditions when the immune system is compromised or disease may result from an environmental exposure. E. coli bacteria may give rise to infections in wounds, the urinary tract, biliary tr…

11 minute read

Esophageal Atresia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Esophageal atresia is a serious birth defect in which the esophagus, the long tube that connects the mouth to the stomach, is segmented and closed off at any point. This condition usually occurs with tracheoesophageal fistula, a condition in which the esophagus is improperly attached to the trachea, the nearby tube that connects the nasal area to the lungs. Esophageal atresia occurs in approximate…

3 minute read

Esophageal Cancer - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Esophageal cancer is a malignancy that develops in tissues of the hollow, muscular canal (esophagus) along which food and liquid travel from the throat to the stomach. Esophageal cancer usually originates in the inner layers of the lining of the esophagus and grows outward. In time, the tumor can obstruct the passage of food and liquid, making swallowing painful and difficult. Since most patients …

10 minute read

Esophageal Function Tests - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Abnormal results

The esophagus is the swallowing tube through which food passes on its way from the mouth to the stomach. The main function of this organ is to propel food down into the stomach. There is also a mechanism to prevent food from coming back up or "refluxing" from the stomach into the esophagus. Esophageal function tests are used to determine if these processes are normal or abnormal. The…

6 minute read

Esophageal Pouches - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Esophageal pouches, also known as esophageal diverticula, are pocket-like structures formed when the interior space of the esophagus, the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach, protrudes into the walls that surround it. The esophagus is a muscular tube that propels food into the stomach. A defect in the wall of the esophagus may allow the lining to herniate, creating a space where food can b…

3 minute read

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks

An endoscope as used in the field of gastroenterology (the medical study of the stomach and intestines) is a thin, flexible tube that uses a lens or miniature camera to view various areas of the gastrointestinal tract. When the procedure is limited to the examination of the inside of the gastrointestinal tract's upper portion, it is called upper endoscopy or esphagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).…

4 minute read

Evoked Potential Studies - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Normal results, Abnormal results

Evoked potential studies are a group of tests of the nervous system that measure electrical signals along the nerve pathways. Nerves convey information to the body by sending electrical signals down the length of the nerve. These signals can be recorded by wires placed over the nerves on the surface of the skin, in a procedure called an evoked potential (EP) study. The person conducting the test e…

4 minute read

Exercise - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Exercise is physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive for the purpose of conditioning any part of the body. Exercise is utilized to improve health, maintain fitness and is important as a means of physical rehabilitation. Exercise is useful in preventing or treating coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, weakness, diabetes, obesity, and depression. Range of motion is one aspect o…

8 minute read

Exophthalmos - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

When there is an increase in the volume of the tissue behind the eyes, the eyes will appear to bulge out of the face. The terms exophthalmos and proptosis apply. Proptosis can refer to any organ that is displaced forward, while exophthalmos refers just to the eyes. The eye socket (orbit) is made of bone and therefore will not yield to increased pressure within it. Only forward displacement of the …

3 minute read

Expectorants - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Expectorants are drugs that loosen and clear mucus and phlegm from the respiratory tract. The drug described here, guaifenesin, is a common ingredient in cough medicines. It is classified as an expectorant, a medicine that helps clear mucus and other secretions from the respiratory tract. However, some debate exists about how effectively guaifenesin does this. In addition, some cough medicines con…

2 minute read

External Sphincter Electromyography - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

External sphincter electromyography helps physicians determine how well the external urinary sphincter muscle is working by measuring the electrical activity in it during contraction and relaxation. The external sphincter muscle is the ring-like muscle that controls urine release from the bladder. When a patient cannot voluntarily control urination (incontinence), a physician may order this test t…

3 minute read

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a special procedure that uses an artificial heart-lung machine to take over the work of the lungs (and sometimes also the heart). ECMO is used most often in newborns and young children, but it also can be used as a last resort for adults whose heart or lungs are failing. In newborns, ECMO is used to support or replace an infant's undeveloped or …

6 minute read

Eye and Orbit Ultrasounds - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Ultrasound imaging equipment allows eye specialists (ophthalmologists) to "see" the eye in great detail without the pain and risk of exploratory surgery, or the limitations and uncertainty inherent to traditional visual examination. Ultrasound is used to detect and diagnose many eye diseases and injuries, to measure the eye prior to corrective surgery, and directly as a treatment too…

5 minute read

Eye Cancer - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A cancerous growth in any part of the eye. Eye cancer can occur in many parts of the eye where a tumor can occur. Because of this there are several types of ocular cancer. Their occurrence varies in the age of the affected individual. This article will focus on retinoblastoma, the most common eye cancer in children, and intraocular melanoma, the most common eye cancer in adults. Retinoblastoma can…

5 minute read

Eye Examination - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Results

An eye examination is a series of tests that measure a person's ocular health and visual status, to detect abnormalities in the components of the visual system, and to determine how well the person can see. An eye examination is performed by an ophthalmologist M.D. or D.O. (doctor of osteopathy), or an optometrist (O.D.) to determine if there are any pre-existing or potential vision problem…

13 minute read

Eye Glasses and Contact Lenses - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Eyeglasses and contact lenses are devices that correct refractive errors in vision. Eyeglass lenses are mounted in frames worn on the face, sitting mostly on the ears and nose, so that the lenses are positioned in front of the eyes. Contact lenses appear to be worn in direct contact with the cornea, but they actually float on a layer of tears that separates them from the cornea. The purpose of eye…

12 minute read

Eye Muscle Surgery - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Eye muscle surgery is surgery to weaken, strengthen, or reposition any of the muscles that move the eyeball (the extraocular muscles). The purpose of eye muscle surgery is generally to align the pair of eyes so that they gaze in the same direction and move together as a team, either to improve appearance or to aid in the development of binocular vision in a young child. To achieve binocular vision…

5 minute read

Eyelid Disorders - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

An eyelid disorder is any abnormal condition that affects the eyelids. Eyelids consist of thin folds of skin, muscle, and connective tissue. The eyelids protect the eyes and spread tears over the front of the eyes. The inside of the eyelids are lined with the conjunctiva of the eyelid (the palpebral conjunctiva), and the outside of the lids are covered with the body's thinnest skin. Some co…

8 minute read

Face Lift - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Face lift surgery is a cosmetic procedure that involves redirecting some of the skin and muscle tissue of the face and neck to counter signs of aging produced by gravity. The purpose of face lift surgery, also known as facialplasty, rhytidoplasty, or cervicofacial rhytidectomy, is to improve the appearance of the face by repositioning the skin and tightening some of the underlying muscle and tissu…

6 minute read

Factitious Disorders - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Factitious disorders are a group of mental disturbances in which patients intentionally act physically or mentally ill without obvious benefits. The name factitious comes from a Latin word that means artificial. These disorders are not malingering, which is defined as pretending illness when the "patient" has a clear motive, such as financial gain. Patients with factitious disorders …

3 minute read

Failure to Thrive - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Failure to thrive (FTT) is used to describe a delay in a child's growth or development. It is usually applied to infants and children up to two years of age who do not gain or maintain weight as they should. Failure to thrive is not a specific disease, but rather a cluster of symptoms which may come from a variety of sources. Shortly after birth most infants loose some weight. After that ex…

3 minute read

Fainting - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Fainting is loss of consciousness caused by a temporary lack of oxygen to the brain. Known by the medical term "syncope," fainting may be preceded by dizziness, nausea, or a feeling of extreme weakness. When a person faints, the loss of consciousness is brief. The person will wake up as soon as normal blood flow is restored to the brain. Blood flow is usually If a person is feeli…

5 minute read

Familial Mediterranean Fever - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited disorder of the inflammatory response characterized by recurring attacks of fever, accompanied by intense pain in the abdomen, chest, or joints. Attacks usually last 12–72 hours, and can occasionally involve a skin rash. Kidney disease is a serious concern if the disorder is not treated. FMF is most prevalent in people of Armenian, Sephardi…

12 minute read

Familial Polyposis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Familial polyposis is an inherited condition which primarily affects the large intestine (colon and rectum). Large numbers of projecting masses of swollen and thickened or tumorous membrane (polyps) develop on the inner lining of this part of the bowel. The polyps eventually become malignant. Familial polyposis (FP) is known by many synonyms, most include some combination of words which reflect wh…

8 minute read

Family Therapy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Risks, Normal results

Family therapy is a form of psychotherapy that involves all the members of a nuclear or extended family. It may be conducted by a pair or team of therapists. In many cases the team consists of a man and a woman in order to treat gender-related issues or serve as role models for family members. Although some forms of family therapy are based on behavioral or psychodynamic principles, the most wides…

8 minute read

Fanconi's Syndrome - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Fanconi's syndrome is a set of kidney malfunctions brought about by a variety of seemingly unrelated disorders. Kidney malfunction leads to excessive urine production and excessive thirst, resulting in deficits of water, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and other substances in the body. It often leads to bone disease and stunted growth. Normally, kidneys cleanse the blood and keep its salt, w…

4 minute read

Fasciotomy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Fasciotomy is a surgical procedure that cuts away the fascia to relieve tension or pressure The fascia is thin connective tissue covering, or separating, the muscles and internal organs of the body. It varies in thickness, density, elasticity, and composition, and is different from ligaments and tendons. The fascia can be injured either through constant strain or through trauma. Fasciitis is an in…

3 minute read

Fasting - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance

Fasting is voluntarily not eating food for varying lengths of time. Fasting is used as a medical therapy for many conditions. It is also a spiritual practice in many religions. Fasting can be used for nearly every chronic condition, including allergies, anxiety, arthritis, asthma, depression, diabetes, headaches, heart disease, high cholesterol, low blood sugar, digestive disorders, mental illness…

8 minute read

Fatigue - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Fatigue is physical and/or mental exhaustion that can be triggered by stress, medication, overwork, or mental and physical illness or disease. Everyone experiences fatigue occasionally. It is the body's way of signaling its need for rest and sleep. But when fatigue becomes a persistent feeling of tiredness or exhaustion that goes beyond normal sleepiness, it is usually a sign that something…

11 minute read

Fatty Liver - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Fatty liver is the collection of excessive amounts of triglycerides and other fats inside liver cells. Also called steatosis, fatty liver can be a temporary or long-term condition, which is not harmful itself, but may indicate some other type of problem. Left untreated, it can contribute to other illnesses. It is usually reversible once the cause of the problem is diagnosed and corrected. The live…

4 minute read

Fecal Incontinence - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Fecal incontinence is the inability to control the passage of gas or stools (feces) through the anus. For some people fecal incontinence is a relatively minor problem, as when it is limited to a slight occasional soiling of underwear, but for other people it involves a considerable loss of bowel control and has a devastating effect on quality of life and psychological well-being. Fortunately, prof…

8 minute read

Fecal Occult Blood Test - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Results

The fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is performed as part of the routine physical examination during the examination of the rectum. It is used to detect microscopic blood in the stool and is a screening tool for colorectal cancer. FOBT uses chemical indicators on stool samples to detect the presence of blood not otherwise visible. (The word "occult" in the test's name means that…

5 minute read

Feldenkrais Method - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance

The Feldenkrais method is an educational system that allows the body to move and function more efficiently and comfortably. Its goal is to re-educate the nervous system and improve motor ability. The system can accomplish much more, relieving pressure on joints and weak points, and allowing the body to heal repetitive strain injuries. Continued use of the method can relieve pain and lead to higher…

7 minute read

Female Genital Mutilation - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Aftercare, Risks

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the cutting, or partial or total removal, of the external female genitalia for cultural, religious, or other non-medical reasons. It is usually performed on girls between the ages of four and 10. It is also called female circumcision. FGM results in the cutting or removal of the tissues around the vagina that give women pleasurable sexual feelings. This procedure…

5 minute read

Female Sexual Arousal Disorder - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) occurs when a woman is continually unable to attain or maintain arousal and lubrication during intercourse, is unable to reach orgasm, or has no desire for sexual intercourse. The disorder typically affects up to 25 percent of all American women, or an estimated 47 million women. Three-fourths of women with FSAD are postmenopausal. Women describe it as being &…

3 minute read

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a pattern of birth defects, learning, and behavioral problems affecting individuals whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy. FAS is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. This condition was first recognized and reported in the medical literature in 1968 in France and in 1973 in the United States. Alcohol is a teratogen, the term used for an…

11 minute read

Fetal Hemoglobin Test - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Risks, Normal results

Fetal hemoglobin (Hemoglobin F), Alkali-resistant hemoglobin, HBF (or Hb F), is the major hemoglobin component in the bloodstream of the fetus. After birth, it decreases rapidly until only traces are found in normal children and adults. The determination of fetal hemoglobin is an aid in evaluating low concentrations of hemoglobin in the blood (anemia), as well as the hereditary persistence of feta…

3 minute read

Fever - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

A fever is any body temperature elevation over 100°F (37.8°C). A healthy person's body temperature fluctuates between 97°F (36.1°C) and 100°F (37.8°C), with the average being 98.6°F (37°C). The body maintains stability within this range by balancing the heat produced by the metabolism with the heat lost to the environment. The "…

7 minute read

Fever Evaluation Tests - Definition, Purpose, Description, Normal results, Abnormal results

Fever evaluation tests, better known as febrile agglutinins tests, are performed to detect the presence of antibodies in the blood that are sensitive to temperature changes. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to specific infectious agents, such as viruses or bateria. Febrile agglutinins are antibodies that cause red blood cells to clump, but only when the blood is wa…

1 minute read

Fever of Unknown Origin - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) refers to the presence of a documented fever for a specified time, for which a cause has not been found after a basic medical evaluation. The classic criteria developed in 1961 included: temperature greater than 101°F (38.3°C), for at least three weeks, and inability to find a cause after one week of study. Within the past decade, a revision has been pro…

7 minute read

Fibrin Split Products - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Fibrin split products (FSP) are fragments of protein released from a dissolving clot. The fibrin split products test is one of several tests done to evaluate a person with blood clotting problems (coagulation), particularly disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). High levels of FSP in a person's blood are associated with DIC, a serious medical condition that develops when the normal b…

3 minute read

Fibrinogen Test - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Fibrinogen (Factor I) is a protein that originates in the liver. It is converted to fibrin during the blood-clotting process (coagulation). The fibrinogen test aids in the diagnosis of suspected clotting or bleeding disorders caused by fibrinogen abnormalities. This test is not recommended for patients with active bleeding, acute infection or illness, or in those patients who have received blood t…

3 minute read

Fibroadenoma - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatments, Prognosis, Prevention

Fibroadenomas are benign breast tumors commonly found in young women. Fibroadenoma means "a tumor composed of glandular (related to gland) and fibrous (containing fibers) tissues." Breast fibroadenomas, abnormal growths of glandular and fibrous tissues, are most common between the ages of 15 and 30, and are found in 10% of all women (20% of African-American women). They are found rar…

4 minute read

Fibrocystic Condition of the Breast - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Fibrocystic condition of the breast is a term that may refer to a variety of symptoms: breast lumpiness or tenderness, microscopic breast tissue, and/or the x ray or ultrasound picture of the breast. It has been called a "wastebasket" diagnosis because a wide range of vaguely defined benign breast conditions may be labeled as fibrocystic condition. It is not a cancer, and the majorit…

12 minute read