Health and Medicine Encyclopedia - Vol 11

Health and Medicine Encyclopedia

Fibromyalgia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Fibromyalgia is described as inflammation of the fibrous or connective tissue of the body. Widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and multiple tender points characterize these conditions. Fibrositis, fibromyalgia, and fibromyositis are names given to a set of symptoms believed to be caused by the same general problem. Fibromyalgia is more common than previously thought, with as many as 3–6% of th…

5 minute read

Fifth Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Fifth disease is a mild childhood illness caused by the human parvovirus B19 that causes flu-like symptoms and a rash. It is called fifth disease because it was fifth on a list of common childhood illnesses that are accompanied by a rash, including measles, rubella or German measles, scarlet fever (or scarlatina), and scarlatinella, a variant of scarlet fever. The Latin name for the disease is ery…

7 minute read

Filariasis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Filiariasis is the name for a group of tropical diseases caused by various thread-like parasitic round worms (nematodes) and their larvae. The larvae transmit the disease to humans through a mosquito bite. Filariasis is characterized by fever, chills, headache, and skin lesions in the early stages and, if untreated, can progress to include gross enlargement of the limbs and genitalia in a conditio…

8 minute read

Fingertip Injuries - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Fingertip trauma covers cuts, accumulation of blood (hematoma), bone breakage, or amputation in the fingertip. The fingertips are specialized areas of the hand with highly developed sensory and manipulative functions. Large sensory and motor areas located in the brain regulate the precise and delicate functions of fingertips. The fingertip is the site where extensor and flexor tendons insert. Fing…

5 minute read

Fish and Shellfish Poisoning - Definition, Ciguatera, Scombroid, Paralytic shellfish poisoning

Fish and shellfish poisoning is a common but often unrecognized group of illnesses related to food. Three of these illnesses include ciguatera, scombroid, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Ciguatera (from the Spanish word for a poisonous snail) is a food-related illness that causes abdominal and neurological symptoms. Ciguatera is caused by eating fish that have a toxin called ciguatoxin. Scienti…

7 minute read

Flesh-Eating Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Flesh-eating disease is more properly called necrotizing fasciitis, a rare condition in which bacteria destroy tissues underlying the skin. This tissue death, called necrosis or gangrene, spreads rapidly. This disease can be fatal in as little as 12 to 24 hours. Although the term is technically incorrect, flesh-eating disease is an apt descriptor: the infection appears to devour body tissue. Media…

4 minute read

Flower Remedies - Definition, Purpose, Description, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance

Flower remedies are specially prepared flower essences, containing the healing energy of plants. They are prescribed according to a patient's emotional disposition, as ascertained by the therapist, doctor, or patients themselves. Flower remedies are more homeopathic than herbal in the way they work, effecting energy levels rather than chemical balances. They have been described as "l…

14 minute read

Fluke Infections - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Fluke infections are diseases of the digestive tract and other organ systems caused by several different A micrograph of adult intestinal blood flukes, Schistosoma mansoni. Humans can become infected while bathing or working in contaminated water. (Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) species of parasitic flatworms (Trematodes) that have complex life cycles involving hosts oth…

9 minute read

Fluoroquinolones - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Fluoroquinolones are medicines that kill bacteria or prevent their growth. Fluoroquinolones are antibiotics, medicines used to treat infections caused by microorganisms. Physicians prescribe these drugs for bacterial infections in many parts of the body. For example, they are used to treat bone and joint infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, inflammation of the prostate, serious e…

6 minute read

Folic Acid - Definition, Description, Purpose, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Folic acid is a water-soluable vitamin belonging to the B-complex group of vitamins. These vitamins help the body break down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars to be used for energy. Excess B vitamins are excreted from the body rather than stored for later use. This is why sufficient daily intake of folic acid is necessary. Folic acid is also known as folate, or folacin. It is one of the nut…

5 minute read

Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Folic acid deficiency, an abnormally low level of one of the B vitamins, results in anemia characterized by red blood cells that are large in size but few in number. Folic acid is necessary for growth and cellular repair, since it is a critical component of DNA and RNA as well as essential for the formation and maturation of red blood cells. Folic acid deficiency is one of the most common of all v…

3 minute read

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Test - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) test measures the amount of FSH in the blood. FSH is a hormone that regulates the growth and development of eggs and sperm, and this test is used to diagnose or evaluate disorders involving the pituitary gland and reproductive system. FSH testing is performed if a physician suspects the patient may have a disorder involving the reproductive system or pituitar…

3 minute read

Folliculitis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Folliculitis is inflammation or infection of one or more hair follicles (openings in the skin that enclose hair). Folliculitis can affect both women and men at any age. It can develop on any part of the body, but is most likely to occur on the scalp, face, or parts of the arms, armpits, or legs not usually covered by clothing. Small, yellowish-white blister-like lumps (pustules) surrounded by narr…

3 minute read

Food Poisoning - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Salmonella, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Food poisoning is a general term for health problems arising from eating contaminated food. Food may be contaminated by bacteria, viruses, environmental toxins, or toxins present within the food itself, such as the poisons in some mushrooms or certain seafood. Symptoms of food poisoning usually involve nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhea. Some food-borne toxins can affect the nervous system. Every ye…

15 minute read

Foot Care - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Foot care involves all aspects of preventative and corrective care of the foot and ankle. Doctors specializing in foot care are called podiatrists. During an average lifetime, each person walks about 115,000 miles and three-quarters of people have foot problems at some point in their lives. Foot problems can arise from wearing ill-fitting shoes, from general wear and tear, as a result of injury, o…

2 minute read

Fracture Repair - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Fracture repair is the process of rejoining and realigning the ends of broken bones. This procedure is usually performed by an orthopedist, general surgeon, or family doctor. In cases of an emergency, first aid measures should be evoked for temporary realignment and immobilization until proper medical help is available. Fracture repair is required when there is a need for restoration of the normal…

5 minute read

Fractures - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A fracture is a complete or incomplete break in a bone resulting from the application of excessive force. A fracture usually results from traumatic injury to bones causing the continuity of bone tissues or bony cartilage to be disrupted or broken. Fracture classifications include simple, compound, incomplete and complete. Simple fractures (more recently called "closed") are not obvio…

13 minute read

Fragile X Syndrome - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. Individuals with this condition have developmental delay, variable levels of mental retardation, and behavioral and emotional difficulties. They may also have characteristic physical traits. Generally, males are affected with moderate mental retardation and females with mild mental retardation. Fragile X syndrome is also k…

9 minute read

Friedreich's Ataxia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is an inherited, progressive nervous system disorder causing loss of balance and coordination. Ataxia is a condition marked by impaired coordination. Friedreich's ataxia is the most common inherited ataxia, affecting between 3,000–5,000 people in the United States. FA is an autosomal recessive disease, which means that two defective gene copies must be…

4 minute read

Frostbite and Frostnip - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Frostbite is the term for damage to the skin and other tissues caused by freezing. Frostnip is a mild form of cold injury. In North America, frostbite is largely confined to Alaska, Canada, and the northern states. Recent years have witnessed a substantial decline in the number of cases, probably for several reasons, including better winter clothing and footwear and greater public understanding of…

9 minute read

Galactorrhea - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Galactorrhea is the secretion of breast milk in men, or in women who are not breastfeeding an infant. Lactation, or the production of breast milk, is a normal condition occurring in women after delivery of a baby. Many women who have had children may even be able to express a small amount of breast milk from the nipple up to two years after childbirth. Galactorrhea, or hyperlactation, however, is …

5 minute read

Galactosemia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Galactosemia is an inherited disease in which the transformation of galactose to glucose is blocked, allowing galactose to increase to toxic levels in the body. If galactosemia is untreated, high levels of galactose cause vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, low blood sugar, brain damage, jaundice, liver enlargement, cataracts, susceptibility to infection, and death. Galactosemia is a rare but potentiall…

8 minute read

Gallbladder cancer - Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Cancer of the gallbladder is cancer of the pearshaped organ that lies on the undersurface of the liver. Bile from the liver is funneled into the gallbladder by way of the cystic duct. Between meals, the gallbladder stores a large amount of bile. To do this, it must absorb much of the water and electrolytes from the bile. In fact, the inner surface of the gallbladder is the most absorptive surface …

5 minute read

Gallbladder Nuclear Medicine Scan - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

A nuclear medicine scan of the gallbladder is used to produce a set of images that look like x rays. The procedure uses a small amount of radioactive dye which is injected into the body. The dye accumulates in the organ, in this case, the gallbladder. A special camera called a scintillation or gamma camera produces images based on how the dye travels through the system and how the radiation is abs…

3 minute read

Gallbladder X Rays - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

This is an x-ray exam of the gallbladder (GB), a sac-like organ that stores bile that is located under the liver. The study involves taking tablets containing dye (contrast) which outline any abnormalities when x rays are taken the following day. The test was once the standard for diagnosing diseases of the GB such as gallstones,but is used less frequently now. This is due to advances in diagnosti…

4 minute read

Gallium Scan of the Body - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

A gallium scan of the body is a nuclear medicine test that is conducted using a camera that detects gallium, a form of radionuclide, or radioactive chemical substance. Most gallium scans are ordered to detect cancerous tumors, infections, or areas of inflammation in the body. Gallium is known to accumulate in inflamed, infected, or cancerous tissues. The scans are used to determine whether a patie…

4 minute read

Gallstone Removal - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare

Also known as cholelithotomy, gallstone removal is the medical procedure that rids the gallbladder of calculus buildup. The gallbladder is not a vital organ. Its function is to store bile, concentrate it, and release it during digestion. Bile is supposed to retain all of its chemicals in solution, but commonly one of them crystallizes and forms sand, gravel, and finally stones. The chemistry of ga…

6 minute read

Gallstones - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A gallstone is a solid crystal deposit that forms in the gallbladder, which is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile salts until they are needed to help digest fatty foods. Gallstones can migrate to other parts of the digestive tract and cause severe pain with life-threatening complications. Gallstones vary in size and chemical structure. A gallstone may be as tiny as a grain of sand or as large as…

8 minute read

Gammaglobulin - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Gammaglobulin is a type of protein found in the blood. When gammaglobulins are extracted from the blood of many people and combined, they can be used to prevent or treat infections. This medicine is used to treat or prevent diseases that occur when the body's own immune system is not effective against the disease. When disease-causing agents enter the body, they normally trigger the product…

2 minute read

Ganglion - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A ganglion is a small, usually hard bump above a tendon or in the capsule that encloses a joint. A ganglion is also called a synovial hernia or synovial cyst. A ganglion is a non-cancerous cyst filled with a thick, jelly-like fluid. Ganglions can develop on or beneath the surface of the skin and usually occur between the ages of 20 and 40. Most ganglions develop on the hand or wrist. This conditio…

2 minute read

Gangrene - Definition, Description, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Gangrene is the term used to describe the decay or death of an organ or tissue caused by a lack of blood supply. It is a complication resulting from infectious or inflammatory processes, injury, or degenerative changes associated with chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. Gangrene may be caused by a variety of chronic diseases and post-traumatic, post-surgical, and spontaneous causes. There…

10 minute read

Gas Embolism - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Gas embolism, also called air embolism, is the presence of gas bubbles in the bloodstream that obstruct circulation. Gas embolism may occur with decompression from increased pressure; it typically occurs in ascending divers who have been breathing compressed air. If a diver does not fully exhale upon ascent, the air in the lungs expands as the pressure decreases, overinflating the lungs and forcin…

3 minute read

Gastrectomy - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Gastrectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach. Gastrectomy is performed for several reasons, most commonly to remove a malignant tumor or to cure a perforated or bleeding stomach ulcer. Removal of the tumor, often with removal of surrounding lymph nodes, is the only curative treatment for various forms of gastric (stomach) cancer. For many patients, this entails removing not ju…

6 minute read

Gastric Acid Determination - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Gastric acid determination, also known as stomach acid determination, gastric analysis, or basal gastric secretion, is a procedure to evaluate gastric (stomach) function. The test specifically determines the presence of gastric acid, as well as the amount of gastric acid secreted. It is often done in conjunction with the gastric acid stimulation test, a procedure that measures gastric acid output …

5 minute read

Gastric Emptying Scan - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

A gastric emptying scan (GES) is an x-ray exam using special radioactive material that allows physicians to identify abnormalities related to emptying of the stomach. Diseases that involve changes in the way the stomach contracts (motility disorders) are best diagnosed by this test. The study is used most frequently to evaluate patients who have symptoms suggestive of decreased, delayed, or rapid …

4 minute read

Gastrinoma - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Gastrinomas are tumors associated with a rare gastroenterological disorder known as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). They occur primarily in the pancreas and duodenum (beginning of the small intestine) and secrete large quantities of the hormone gastrin, triggering gastric acid production that produces ulcers. They may be malignant (cancerous) or benign. Gastrinomas are an integral part of the Zo…

6 minute read

Gastritis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Gastritis commonly refers to inflammation of the lining of the stomach, but the term is often used to cover a variety of symptoms resulting from stomach lining inflammation and symptoms of burning or discomfort. True gastritis comes in several forms and is diagnosed using a combination of tests. In the 1990s, scientists discovered that the main cause of true gastritis is infection from a bacterium…

11 minute read

Gastroenteritis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Gastroenteritis is a catchall term for infection or irritation of the digestive tract, particularly the stomach and intestine. It is frequently referred to as the stomach or intestinal flu, although the influenza virus is not associated with this illness. Major symptoms include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. These symptoms are sometimes also accompanied by fever and overall w…

7 minute read

Gastrostomy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Gastrostomy is a surgical procedure for inserting a tube through the abdomen wall and into the stomach. The tube is used for feeding or drainage. Gastrostomy is performed because a patient temporarily or permanently needs to be fed directly through a tube in the stomach. Reasons for feeding by gastrostomy include birth defects of the mouth, esophagus, or stomach, and problems sucking or swallowing…

3 minute read

Gaucher Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Gaucher disease is a rare genetic disorder that results in accumulation of fatty molecules called cerebrosides. It can have serious effects on numerous body organs including the liver, spleen, bones and central nervous system. Treatments based on molecular biology are becoming available, but are very expensive. Gaucher disease was first described by the French physician Philippe Gaucher in 1882. I…

7 minute read

Gay and Lesbian Health - Definition, Description, Prevention

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are as diverse as the general population in terms of race, ethnicity, age, religion, education, income, and family history. A number of health concerns are unique to or shared by the LGBT community, however, including an increased risk of certain cancers, infectious and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and mental health disorders; iss…

12 minute read

Gender Identity Disorder - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

The psychological diagnosis gender identity disorder (GID) is used to describe a male or female that feels a strong identification with the opposite sex and experiences considerable distress because of their actual sex. Gender identity disorder can affect children, adolescents, and adults. Individuals with gender identity disorder have strong cross-gender identification. They believe that they are…

4 minute read

Gene Therapy - Definition, The biological basis of gene therapy, Viral vectors, The history of gene therapy

Gene therapy is a rapidly growing field of medicine in which genes are introduced into the body to treat diseases. Genes control heredity and provide the basic biological code for determining a cell's specific functions. Gene therapy seeks to provide genes that correct or supplant the disease-controlling functions of cells that are not, in essence, doing their job. Somatic gene therapy intr…

22 minute read

General Adaptation Syndrome - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

General adaptation syndrome describes the body's short-term and long-term reaction to stress. Originally described by Hans De Solye in the 1920s, the general adaptation syndrome describes a three stage reaction to stress. Stressors in humans include physical stressors, such as starvation, being hit by a car, or suffering through severe weather. Additionally, humans can suffer emotional or m…

3 minute read

General Surgery - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

General surgery is the treatment of injury, deformity, and disease using operative procedures. General surgery is frequently performed to alleviate suffering when a cure is unlikely through medication alone. It can be used for routine procedures performed in a physician's office, such as vasectomy, or for more complicated operations requiring a medical team in a hospital setting, such as la…

6 minute read

Generalized Anxiety Disorder - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Generalized anxiety disorder is a condition characterized by "free floating" anxiety or apprehension not linked to a specific cause or situation. Some degree of fear and anxiety is perfectly normal. In the face of real danger, fear makes people more alert and also prepares the body to fight or flee (the so-called "fight or flight" response). When people are afraid, thei…

4 minute read

Genetic Counseling - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Genetic counseling aims to facilitate the exchange of information regarding a person's genetic legacy. It attempts to: Genetic counselors work with people concerned about the risk of an inherited disease. The counselor does not prevent the incidence of a disease in a family, but can help family members assess the risk for certain hereditary diseases and offer guidance. Many couples seek gen…

8 minute read

Genetic Testing - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Types of Genetic Testing, Applications for Genetic Testing, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks

A genetic test examines the genetic information contained inside a person's cells, called DNA, to determine if that person has or will develop a certain disease or could pass a disease to his or her offspring. Genetic tests also determine whether or not couples are at a higher risk than the general population for having a child affected with a genetic disorder. Some families or ethnic group…

29 minute read

Genital Herpes - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a herpes virus. The disease is characterized by the formation of fluid-filled, painful blisters in the genital area. Genital herpes (herpes genitalis, herpes progenitalis) is characterized by the formation of fluid-filled blisters on the genital organs of men and women. The word "herpes" comes from the Greek adjective herpest…

15 minute read

Genital Warts - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Genital warts, which are also called condylomata acuminata or venereal warts, are growths in the genital area caused by a sexually transmitted papillomavirus. A papillomavirus is a virus that produces papillomas, or benign growths on the skin and mucous membranes. Genital warts are the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the general population. It is estimated that 1% of sexually act…

4 minute read

Gestalt Therapy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Gestalt therapy is a humanistic therapy technique that focuses on gaining an awareness of emotions and behaviors in the present rather than in the past. The therapist does not interpret experiences for the patient. Instead, the therapist and patient work together to help the patient understand him/herself. This type of therapy focuses on experiencing the present situation rather than talking about…

4 minute read

Gestational Diabetes - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Gestational diabetes is a condition that occurs during pregnancy. Like other forms of diabetes, gestational diabetes involves a defect in the way the body processes and uses sugars (glucose) in the diet. Gestational diabetes, however, has a number of characteristics that are different from other forms of diabetes. Glucose is a form of sugar that is present in many foods, including sweets, potatoes…

6 minute read

GI bleeding Studies - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

GI bleeding studies uses radioactive materials in the investigation of bleeding from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These studies go under various names such as "GI bleeding scans" or "Tagged red blood cell scans." They are performed and interpreted by radiologists (physicians who specialize in diagnosis and treatment of diseases by means of x rays or related substanc…

3 minute read

Giardiasis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Giardiasis is a common intestinal infection spread by eating contaminated food, drinking contaminated water, or through direct contact with the organism that causes the disease, Giardia lamblia. Giardiasis is found throughout the world and is a common cause of traveller's diarrhea. In the United States it is a growing problem, especially among children in childcare centers. Giardia is one o…

6 minute read

Ginkgo Biloba - Definition, Description, Purpose, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Ginkgo biloba, known as the maidenhair tree, is one of the oldest trees on Earth, once part of the flora of the Mesozoic period. The ginkgo tree is the only surviving species of the Ginkgoaceae family. This ancient deciduous tree may live for thousands of years. Ginkgo is indigenous to China, Japan, and Korea, but also thrived in North America and Europe prior to the Ice Age. This drastic climate …

6 minute read

Ginseng, Korean - Definition, Description, Purpose, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Korean ginseng is one of the most widely used and acclaimed herbs in the world. Its scientific name is Panax ginseng, which is the species from which Chinese, Korean, red, and white ginseng are produced. Chinese and Korean ginseng are the same plant cultivated in different regions, and have slightly different properties according to Chinese medicine. White ginseng is simply the dried or powdered r…

10 minute read

Glaucoma - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases characterized by damage to the optic nerve usually due to excessively high intraocular pressure (IOP).This increased pressure within the eye, if untreated can lead to optic nerve damage resulting in progressive, permanent vision loss, starting with unnoticeable blind spots at the edges of the field of vision, progressing to tunnel vision, and then to blindness. …

13 minute read

Glomerulonephritis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Acute glomerulonephritis is an inflammatory disease of both kidneys predominantly affecting children from ages two to 12. Chronic glomerulonephritis can develop over a period of 10–20 years and is most often associated with other systemic disease, including diabetes, malaria, hepatitis, or systemic lupus erythematosus. Acute glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli, bundles of…

4 minute read

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an inherited condition caused by a defect or defects in the gene that codes for the enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). It can cause hemolytic anemia, varying in severity from life-long anemia, to rare bouts of anemia to total unawareness of the condition. The episodes of hemolytic anemia are usually triggered by oxidants, infection, or…

5 minute read