Health and Medicine Encyclopedia - Vol 12

Health and Medicine Encyclopedia

Glycogen Storage Diseases - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Glycogen serves as the primary fuel reserve for the body's energy needs. Glycogen storage diseases, also known as glycogenoses, are genetically linked metabolic disorders that involve the enzymes regulating glycogen metabolism. Symptoms vary by the glycogen storage disease (GSD) type and can include muscle cramps and wasting, enlarged liver, and low blood sugar. Disruption of glycogen metab…

11 minute read

Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Normal results, Abnormal results

Glycosylated hemoglobin is a test that indicates how much sugar has been in a person's blood during the past two to four months. It is used to monitor the effectiveness of diabetes treatment. Diabetes is a disease in which a person cannot effectively use sugar in the blood. Left untreated, blood sugar levels can be very high. High sugar levels increase risk of complications, such as damage …

4 minute read

Goiter - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Goiter refers to any visible enlargement of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland sits astride the trachea (windpipe) and is shaped like a butterfly. It makes thyroxin, a hormone that regulates the metabolic activity of the body, rather like the gas pedal on a car. Too much thyroxin increases the metabolism, causing weight loss, temperature elevation, nervousness, and irritability. Too little thyro…

4 minute read

Gonorrhea - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Gonorrhea is a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The mucous membranes of the genital region may become inflamed without the development of any other symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they are different in men and women. In men, gonorrhea usually begins as an infection of the vessel that carries urine and sperm (urethra). In women,…

11 minute read

Goodpasture's Syndrome - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

An uncommon and life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder believed to be an autoimmune process related to antibody formation in the body. Goodpasture's syndrome is characterized by renal (kidney) disease and lung hemorrhage. The disorder is characterized by autoimmune reaction which deposits of antibodies in the membranes of both the lung and kidneys, causing both inflammation of kidney (g…

3 minute read

Gout - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Gout is a form of acute arthritis that causes severe pain and swelling in the joints. It most commonly affects the big toe, but may also affect the heel, ankle, hand, wrist, or elbow. Gout usually comes on suddenly, goes away after 5–10 days, and can keep recurring. Gout is different from other forms of arthritis because it occurs when there are high levels of uric acid circulating in the b…

8 minute read

Gout Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Gout drugs are medicines that prevent or relieve the symptoms of gout, a disease that affects the joints and kidneys. Gout is a disease in which uric acid, a waste product that normally passes out of the body in urine, collects and forms crystals in the joints and the kidneys. When uric acid crystals build up in the joints, the tissue around the joint becomes inflamed, and nerve endings in the are…

8 minute read

Graft-vs.-host Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Graft-vs.-host disease is an immune attack on the recipient by cells from a donor. The main problem with transplanting organs and tissues is that the recipient host does not recognize the new tissue as its own. Instead, it attacks it as foreign in the same way it attacks germs, to destroy it. If immunogenic cells from the donor are transplanted along with the organ or tissue, they will attack the …

4 minute read

Granuloma Inguinale - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Granuloma inguinale is a sexually transmitted infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of the anal and genital areas. Its name is derived from granuloma, a medical term for a mass or growth of granulation tissue, and inguinale, a Latin word that means located in the groin. Granulation tissue is tissue formed during wound healing that is rich in blood capillaries and has a rough or lump…

5 minute read

Group Therapy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Group therapy is a form of psychosocial treatment where a small group of patients meet regularly to talk, interact, and discuss problems with each other and the group leader (therapist). Group therapy attempts to give individuals a safe and comfortable place where they can work out problems and emotional issues. Patients gain insight into their own thoughts and behavior, and offer suggestions and …

7 minute read

Growth Hormone Tests - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Growth hormone (hGH), or somatotropin, is a hormone responsible for normal body growth and development by stimulating protein production in muscle cells and energy release from the breakdown of fats. Tests for growth hormone include Somatotropin hormone test, Somatomedin C, Growth hormone suppression test (glucose loading test), and Growth hormone stimulation test (Arginine test or Insulin toleran…

10 minute read

Guided Imagery - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance

Guided imagery is the use of relaxation and mental visualization to improve mood and/or physical well-being. The connection between the mind and physical health has been well documented and extensively studied. Positive mental imagery can promote relaxation and reduce stress, improve mood, control high blood pressure, alleviate pain, boost the immune system, and lower cholesterol and blood sugar l…

5 minute read

Guillain-Barré Syndrome - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) causes progressive muscle weakness and paralysis (the complete inability to use a particular muscle or muscle group), which develops over days or up to four weeks, and lasts several weeks or even months. The classic scenario in GBS involves a patient who has just recovered from a typical, seemingly uncomplicated viral infection. Symptoms of muscle weakness appe…

6 minute read

Guinea Worm Infection - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Infection occurs when the parasitic guinea worm resides within the body. Infection is not apparent until a pregnant female worm prepares to expel embryos. The infection is rarely fatal, but the latter stage is painful. The infection is also referred to as dracunculiasis, and less commonly as dracontiasis. Before the early 1980s, guinea worms infected 10–15 million people annually in central…

3 minute read

Gulf War Syndrome - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis

Gulf War syndrome describes a wide spectrum of illnesses and symptoms ranging from asthma to sexual dysfunction that have been reported by U.S. and U.S. allied soldiers who served in the Persian Gulf War in 1990–1991. Between 1994 and 1999, 145 federally funded research studies on Gulf War-related illnesses were undertaken at a cost of over $133 million. Despite this investment and the data…

7 minute read

Gynecomastia - Definition, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Gyne refers to female, and mastia refers to the breast. Gynecomastia is strictly a male disease and is any growth of the adipose (fatty) and glandular tissue in a male breast. Not all breast growth in men is considered abnormal, just excess growth. Breast growth is directed exclusively by female hormones—estrogens. Although men have some estrogen in their system, it is usually insufficient …

2 minute read

Hair Transplantation - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Hair transplantation is a surgical procedure used to treat baldness or hair loss. Typically, tiny patches of scalp are removed from the back and sides of the head and implanted in the bald spots in the front and top of the head. Hair transplantation is a cosmetic procedure performed on men (and occasionally on women) who have significant hair loss, thinning hair, or bald spots where hair no longer…

6 minute read

Hairy Cell Leukemia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prevention

Hairy cell leukemia is a disease in which a type of white blood cell called the lymphocyte, present in the blood and bone marrow, becomes malignant and proliferates. It is called hairy cell leukemia because the cells have tiny hair-like projections when viewed under the microscope. Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare cancer. It was first described in 1958 as leukemic reticuloendotheliosis, erroneo…

8 minute read

Hallucinations - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Hallucinations are false or distorted sensory experiences that appear to be real perceptions. These sensory impressions are generated by the mind rather than by any external stimuli, and may be seen, heard, felt, and even smelled or tasted. A hallucination occurs when environmental, emotional, or physical factors such as stress, medication, extreme fatigue, or mental illness cause the mechanism wi…

3 minute read

Hammertoe - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Hammertoe is a condition in which the toe is bent in a claw-like position. It can be present in more than one toe but is most common in the second toe. Hammertoe is described as a deformity in which the toes bend downward with the toe joint usually enlarged. Over time, the joint enlarges and stiffens as it rubs against shoes. Other foot structures involved include the overlying skin and blood vess…

3 minute read

Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is an infection of young children in which characteristic fluid-filled blisters appear on the hands, feet, and inside the mouth. Coxsackie viruses belong to a family of viruses called enteroviruses. These viruses live in the gastrointestinal tract, and are therefore present in feces. They can be spread easily from one person to another when poor hygiene allows the virus…

4 minute read

Hantavirus Infections - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Hantavirus infection is caused by a group of viruses that can infect humans with two serious illnesses: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Hantaviruses are found without causing symptoms within various species of rodents and are passed to humans by exposure to the urine, feces, or saliva of those infected rodents. Ten different hantaviruses have …

7 minute read

Haptoglobin Test - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Normal results, Abnormal results

This test is done to help evaluate a person for hemolytic anemia. Haptoglobin is a blood protein made by the liver. The haptoglobin levels decrease in hemolytic anemia. Hemolytic anemias include a variety of conditions that result in hemolyzed, or burst, red blood cells. Decreased values can also indicate a slower type of red cell destruction unrelated to anemia. For example, destruction can be ca…

3 minute read

Hartnup Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Hartnup disease is an inherited nutritional disorder with primary symptoms including a red, scaly rash and sensitivity to sunlight. Hartnup disease was first identified in the 1950s in the Hartnup family in London. A defect in intestines and kidneys makes it difficult to break down and absorb protein in the diet. This causes a condition very similar to pellegra (niacin deficiency). The condition o…

3 minute read

Hatha Yoga - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects

Hatha yoga is the most widely practiced form of yoga in America. It is the branch of yoga which concentrates on physical health and mental well-being. Hatha yoga uses bodily postures (asanas), breathing techniques (pranayama), and meditation (dyana) with the goal of bringing about a sound, healthy body and a clear, peaceful mind. There are nearly 200 hatha yoga postures, with hundreds of variation…

10 minute read

Head and Neck Cancer - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

The term head and neck cancers refers to a group of cancers found in the head and neck region. This includes tumors found in: The most frequently occurring cancers of the head and neck area are oral cancers and laryngeal cancers. Almost half of all the head and neck cancers occur in the oral cavity, and a third of the cancers are found in the larynx. By definition, the term "head and neck c…

13 minute read

Head Injury - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Injury to the head may damage the scalp, skull or brain. The most important consequence of head trauma is traumatic brain injury. Head injury may occur either as a closed head injury, such as the head hitting a car's windshield, or as a penetrating head injury, as when a bullet pierces the skull. Both may cause damage that ranges from mild to profound. Very severe injury can be fatal becaus…

10 minute read

Headache - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A headache involves pain in the head which can arise from many disorders or may be a disorder in and of itself. There are three types of primary headaches: tension-type (muscular contraction headache), migraine (vascular headaches), and cluster. Virtually everyone experiences a tension-type headache at some point. An estimated 18% of American women suffer migraines, compared to 6% of men. Cluster …

4 minute read

Hearing Aids - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

A hearing aid is a device that can amplify sound waves in order to help a deaf or hard-of-hearing person hear sounds more clearly. Recent technology can help most people with hearing loss understand speech better and achieve better communication. It's important that a person being fitted for a hearing aid understand what an aid can and can't do. An aid can help a person hear better, …

9 minute read

Hearing Loss - Definition, Description, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prevention

Hearing loss is any degree of impairment of the ability to apprehend sound. Sound can be measured accurately. The term decibel (dB) refers to an amount of energy moving sound from its source to our ears or to a microphone. A drop of more than 10 dB in the level of sound a person can hear is significant. Sound travels through a medium like air or water as waves of compression and rarefaction. These…

9 minute read

Hearing Tests with a Tuning Fork - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

A tuning fork is a metal instrument with a handle and two prongs or tines. Tuning forks, made of steel, aluminum, or magnesium-alloy will vibrate at a set frequency to produce a musical tone when struck. The vibrations produced can be used to assess a person's ability to hear various sound frequencies. A vibrating tuning fork held next to the ear or placed against the skull will stimulate t…

3 minute read

Heart Attack - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A heart attack is the death of, or damage to, part of the heart muscle because the supply of blood to the heart muscle is severely reduced or stopped. Heart attack is the leading cause of death in the United States. More than 1.5 million Americans suffer a heart attack every year, and almost half a million die, according to the American Heart Association. Most heart attacks are the end result of y…

17 minute read

Heart Block - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Heart block refers to a delay in the normal flow of electrical impulses that cause the heart to beat. They are further classified as first-, second-, or third-degree block. The muscles of the heart contract in a rhythmic order for each heart beat, because electrical impulses travel along a specific route called the conduction system. The main junction of this system is called the atrioventricular …

2 minute read

Heart Failure - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Heart failure is a condition in which the heart has lost the ability to pump enough blood to the body's tissues. With too little blood being delivered, the organs and other tissues do not receive enough oxygen and nutrients to function properly. According to the American Heart Association, about4.9 million Americans are living with congestive heart failure. Of these, 2.5 million are males a…

11 minute read

Heart Murmurs - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis

A heart murmur is an abnormal, extra sound during the heartbeat cycle made by blood moving through the heart and its valves. It is detected by the physician's examination using a stethoscope. A heart which is beating normal makes two sounds, "lubb" when the valves between the atria and ventricles close, and "dupp" when the valves between the ventricles and the ma…

5 minute read

Heart Surgery for Congenital Defects - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks

A variety of surgical procedures that are performed to repair the many types of heart defects that may be present at birth. Heart surgery for congenital defects is performed to repair a defect as much as possible and improve the flow of blood and oxygen to the body. While congenital heart defects vary in their severity, most require surgery. Surgery is recommended for congenital heart defects that…

8 minute read

Heart Transplantation - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Outcomes

Heart transplantation, also called cardiac transplantation, is the replacement of a patient's diseased or injured heart with a healthy donor heart. Heart transplantation is performed on patients with end-stage heart failure or some other life-threatening heart disease. Before a doctor recommends heart transplantation for a patient, all other possible treatments for his or her disease must h…

12 minute read

Heart Valve Repair - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Heart valve repair is a surgical procedure used to correct a malfunctioning heart valve. Repair usually involves separating the valve leaflets (the one-way "doors" of the heart valve which open and close to pump blood through the heart) or forcing them open with a balloon catheter, a technique known as balloon valvuloplasty. To correct damage to the mitral, aortic, pulmonary, or tric…

3 minute read

Heart Valve Replacement - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Heart valve replacement is a surgical procedure during which surgeons remove a damaged valve from the heart and substitute a healthy one. Four valves direct blood to and from the body through the heart: the aortic valve, the pulmonic valve, the tricuspid valve, and the mitral valve. Any of these valves may malfunction because of a birth defect, infection, disease, or trauma. When the malfunction i…

7 minute read

Heartburn - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Heartburn is a burning sensation in the chest that can extend to the neck, throat, and face; it is worsened by bending or lying down. It is the primary symptom of gastroesophageal reflux, which is the movement of stomach acid into the esophagus. On rare occasions, it is due to gastritis (stomach lining inflammation). More than one third of the population is afflicted by heartburn, with about one t…

11 minute read

Heat Disorders - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Heat disorders are a group of physically related illnesses caused by prolonged exposure to hot temperatures, restricted fluid intake, or failure of temperature regulation mechanisms of the body. Disorders of heat exposure include heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke (also called sunstroke). Hyperthermia is the general name given to heat-related illnesses. The two most common forms of hype…

7 minute read

Heat Treatments - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks

Heat treatments are applications of therapeutic thermal agents to specific body areas experiencing injury or dysfunction. The general purpose of a heat treatment is to increase the extensibility of soft tissues, remove toxins from cells, enhance blood flow, increase function of the tissue cells, encourage muscle relaxation, and help relieve pain. There are two types of heat treatments: superficial…

5 minute read

Heavy Metal Poisoning - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Heavy metal poisoning is the toxic accumulation of heavy metals in the soft tissues of the body. Heavy metals are chemical elements that have a specific gravity (a measure of density) at least five times that of water. The heavy metals most often implicated in human poisoning are lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium. Some heavy metals, such as zinc, copper, chromium, iron, and manganese, are requir…

4 minute read

Heel Spurs - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A heel spur is a bony projection on the sole (plantar) region of the heel bone (also known as the calcaneous). This condition may accompany or result from severe cases of inflammation to the structure called plantar fascia. This associated plantar fascia is a fibrous band of connective tissue on the sole of the foot, extending from the heel to the toes. Heel spurs are a common foot problem resulti…

6 minute read

Heimlich Maneuver - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Normal results

The Heimlich maneuver is an emergency procedure for removing a foreign object lodged in the airway that is preventing a person from breathing. Every year about 3,000 adults die because they accidentally inhale rather than swallow food. The food gets stuck and blocks their trachea, making breathing impossible. Death follows rapidly unless the food or other foreign material can be displaced from the…

7 minute read

Heliobacteriosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Helicobacteriosis refers to infection of the gastrointestinal tract with the bacteria, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). While there are other rarer strains of Helicobacter species that can infect humans, only H. pylori has been convincingly shown to be a cause of disease in humans. The organism was first documented to cause injury to the stomach in 1983, by two researchers in Australia, who ingest…

8 minute read

Hellerwork - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance

Hellerwork is a system of bodywork that combines deep tissue massage, body movement education, and verbal dialogue. It is designed to realign the body's structure for overall health, improvement of posture, and reduction of physical and mental stress. Hellerwork improves posture and brings the body's natural structure into proper balance and alignment. This realignment can bring reli…

6 minute read

Hematocrit - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Normal results, Abnormal results

The hematocrit measures how much space in the blood is occupied by red blood cells. It is useful when evaluating a person for anemia. Blood is made up of red and white blood cells, and plasma. A decrease in the number or size of red cells also decreases the amount of space they occupy, resulting in a lower hematocrit. An increase in the number or size of red cells increases the amount of space the…

3 minute read

Hemochromatosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Hemochromatosis is an inherited blood disorder that causes the body to retain excessive amounts of iron. This iron overload can lead to serious health consequences, most notably cirrhosis of the liver. Hemochromatosis is also known as iron overload, bronze diabetes, hereditary hemochromatosis and familial hemochromatosis. The inherited disorder causes increased absorption of intestinal iron, well …

9 minute read

Hemoglobin Electrophoresis - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Hemoglobin electrophoresis (also called Hgb electrophoresis), is a test that measures the different types of hemoglobin in the blood. The method used is called electrophoresis, a process that causes movement of particles in an electric field, resulting in formation of "bands" that separate toward one end or the other in the field. Hgb electrophoresis is performed when a disorder asso…

3 minute read

Hemoglobin Test - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Normal results, Abnormal results

Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. A hemoglobin test reveals how much hemoglobin is in a person's blood, helping to diagnose and monitor anemia and polycythemia vera. A hemoglobin test is done when a person is ill or during a general physical examination. Good health requires an adequate amount of hemoglobin. The amount of oxygen in the b…

3 minute read

Hemoglobinopathies - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Hemoglobinopathies are genetic (inherited) disorders of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein of the red blood cells. The hemoglobin molecule is composed of four separate polypeptide chains of amino acids, two alpha chains and two beta chains, as well as four iron-bearing heme groups that bind oxygen. The alpha chains are coded for by two similar genes on chromosome 16; the beta chains by a sing…

5 minute read

Hemolytic Anemia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Red blood cells have a normal life span of approximately 90–120 days, at which time the old cells are destroyed and replaced by the body's natural processes. Hemolytic anemia is a disorder in which the red blood cells are destroyed prematurely. The cells are broken down at a faster rate than the bone marrow can produce new cells. Hemoglobin, the component of red blood cells that carr…

4 minute read

Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare condition that affects mostly children under the age of 10, but also may affect the elderly as well as persons with other illnesses. HUS, which most commonly develops after a severe bowel infection with certain toxic strains of a bacteria, is characterized by destruction of red blood cells, damage to the lining of blood vessel walls, and in severe cases, k…

5 minute read

Hemophilia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Hemophilia is a genetic disorder—usually inherited—of the mechanism of blood clotting. Depending on the degree of the disorder present in an individual, excess bleeding may occur only after specific, predictable events (such as surgery, dental procedures, or injury), or occur spontaneously, with no known initiating event. The normal mechanism for blood clotting is a complex series of…

11 minute read

Hemophilus Infections - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Hemophilus infections, most of which are due to Haemophilus influenzae infections, are a group of contagious diseases that are caused by a gram-negative bacterium, and affect only humans. Some hemophilus infections are potentially fatal. H. influenzae is a common organism worldwide; it has been found in the nasal secretions of as many as 90% of healthy individuals in the general population. Hemoph…

8 minute read

Hemoptysis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or bloody sputum from the lungs or airway. It may be either self-limiting or recurrent. Massive hemoptysis is defined as 200–600 mL of blood coughed up within a period of 24 hours or less. Hemoptysis can range from small quantities of bloody sputum to life-threatening amounts of blood. The patient may or may not have chest pain. Hemoptysis can be cause…

3 minute read

Hemorrhagic Fevers - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Hemorrhagic fevers are caused by viruses that exist throughout the world. However, they are most common in tropical areas. Early symptoms, such as muscle aches and fever, can progress to a mild illness or to a more debilitating, potentially fatal disease. In severe cases, a prominent symptom is bleeding, or hemorrhaging, from orifices and internal organs. Although hemorrhagic fevers are regarded a…

9 minute read

Hemorrhoids - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Hemorrhoids are enlarged veins in the anus or lower rectum. They often go unnoticed and usually clear up after a few days, but can cause long-lasting discomfort, bleeding and be excruciatingly painful. Effective medical treatments are available, however. Hemorrhoids (also called piles) can be divided into two kinds, internal and external. Internal hemorrhoids lie inside the anus or lower rectum, b…

8 minute read

Hepatitis A - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Hepatitis A is an inflammation of the liver caused by a virus, the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It varies in severity, running an acute course, generally starting within two to six weeks after contact with the virus, and lasting no longer than two or three months. HAV may occur in single cases after contact with an infected relative or sex partner. Alternately, epidemics may develop when food or drink…

6 minute read