Health and Medicine Encyclopedia - Vol 3

Health and Medicine Encyclopedia

Antihypertensive Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Interactions

Antihypertensive drugs are medicines that help lower blood pressure. The overall class of antihypertensive agents lowers blood pressure, although the mechanisms of action vary greatly. Within this therapeutic class, there are several subgroups. There are a very large number of drugs used to control hypertension, and the drugs listed below are representatives, but not the only members of their clas…

7 minute read

Anti-Hyperuricemic Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description

Anti-hyperuricemic drugs are used to treat hyperuricemia, the state of having too much uric acid in the blood. Anti-hyperuricemic drugs decrease the levels of uric acid in the blood, either by increasing the rate at which uric acid is excreted in the urine, or by preventing the formation of excess uric acid. Before taking any medication, patients should notify their physician of all other medicati…

2 minute read

Anti-Insomnia Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Anti-insomnia drugs are medicines that help people fall asleep or stay asleep. Physicians prescribe anti-insomnia drugs for short-term treatment of insomnia—a sleep problem in which people have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep or wake up too early and can't go back to sleep. These drugs should be used only for occasional treatment of temporary sleep problems and should not be…

7 minute read

Anti-Itch Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Anti-itch drugs are medicines taken by mouth or by injection to relieve itching. The medicine described here, hydroxyzine, is a type of antihistamine used to relieve itching caused by allergic reactions. An allergic reaction occurs when the body is unusually sensitive to some substance, such as pollen, dust, mold, or certain foods or medicine. The body reacts by releasing a chemical called histami…

3 minute read

Antimalarial Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Antimalarial drugs are medicines that prevent or treat malaria. Antimalarial drugs treat or prevent malaria, a disease that occurs in tropical, subtropical, and some temperate regions of the world. The disease is caused by a parasite, Plasmodium, which belongs to a group of one-celled organisms known as protozoa. The only way to get malaria is to be bitten by a certain type of mosquito that has bi…

8 minute read

Antimigraine Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Antimigraine drugs are medicines used to prevent or reduce the severity of migraine headaches. Migraine headaches usually cause a throbbing pain on one side of the head. Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, increased sensitivity to light and sound, and other symptoms may accompany the pain. The attacks may last for several hours or for a day or more and may come as often as several times a week. Some peop…

8 minute read

Antimyocardial Antibody Test - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Normal results, Abnormal results

Testing for antimyocardial antibodies is done when evaluating a person for heart damage or heart disease. Antimyocardial antibodies are autoantibodies. Normal antibodies are special proteins built by the body as a defense against foreign material entering the body. Autoantibodies are also proteins built by the body, but instead of attacking foreign material, they inappropriately attack the body&#x…

3 minute read

Antinausea Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Antinausea drugs are medicines that control nausea— a feeling of sickness or queasiness in the stomach with an urge to vomit. These drugs also prevent or stop vomiting. Drugs that control vomiting are called antiemetic drugs. The drug described here, prochlorperazine (Compazine), controls both nausea and vomiting. Prochlorperazine is also sometimes prescribed for symptoms of mental disorder…

4 minute read

Antinuclear Antibody Test - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Normal results, Abnormal results

The antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is a test done early in the evaluation of a person for autoimmune or rheumatic disease, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In autoimmune diseases, the body makes antibodies that work against its own cells or tissues. Rheumatic diseases (diseases that affect connective tissue, including the joints, bone, and muscle) are also associated with these an…

3 minute read

Antiparkinson Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Antiparkinson drugs are medicines that relieve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism. Antiparkinson drugs are used to treat symptoms of parkinsonism, a group of disorders that share four main symptoms: tremor or trembling in the hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face; stiffness or rigidity of the arms, legs, and trunk; slowness of movement (bradykinesia); and poor ba…

7 minute read

Antiprotozoal Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Antiprotozoal drugs are medicines that treat infections caused by protozoa. Antiprotozoal drugs are used to treat a variety of diseases caused by protozoa. Protozoa are animal-like, onecelled animals, such as amoebas. Some are parasites that cause infections in the body. African sleeping sickness, giardiasis, amebiasis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), and malaria are examples of diseases cau…

4 minute read

Antipsychotic Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Interactions

Antipsychotic drugs are a class of medicines used to treat psychosis and other mental and emotional conditions. Psychosis is defined as "a serious mental disorder (as schizophrenia) characterized by defective or lost contact with reality often with hallucinations or delusions." Psychosis is an end-stage condition arising from a variety of possible causes. Anti-psychotic drugs control…

4 minute read

Antipsychotic Drugs, Atypical - Definition, Purpose, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

The atypical antipsychotic agents, sometimes called the "novel" antipsychotic agents are a group of drugs which are different chemically from the older drugs used to treat psychosis. The "conventional" antipsychotic drugs are classified by their chemical structures as the phenothiazines, thioxanthines (which are chemically very similar to the phenothiazines), butyrophen…

4 minute read

Antiretroviral Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Interactions

Antiretroviral drugs inhibit the reproduction of retroviruses—viruses composed of RNA rather than DNA. The best known of this group is HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, the causative agent of AIDS. Antiretroviral agents are virustatic agents which block steps in the replication of the virus. The drugs are not curative; however continued use of drugs, particularly in multi-drug regimens, si…

5 minute read

Antirheumatic Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Antirheumatic drugs are drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a progressive form of arthritis that has devastating effects on joints and general health. It is classified as an auto-immune disease, because the disease is caused by the body's own immune system acting against the body itself. Symptoms include painful, stiff, swollen joints, fever, fatigue, and loss …

6 minute read

Antiseptics - Definition, Purpose, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Interactions

An antiseptic is a substance which inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms. For practical purposes, antiseptics are routinely thought of as topical agents, for application to skin, mucous membranes, and inanimate objects, although a formal definition includes agents which are used internally, such as the urinary tract antiseptics. Antiseptics are a diverse class of drugs which are ap…

3 minute read

Antispasmodic Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Antispasmodic drugs relieve cramps or spasms of the stomach, intestines, and bladder. Antispasmodic drugs have been used to treat stomach cramps. Traditionally, they were used to treat stomach ulcers, but for this purpose they have largely been replaced by the acid inhibiting compoundsa, the H-2 receptor blockers such as cimetidine and ranitidine and the proton pump inhibtors such as omeprazole, l…

3 minute read

Antituberculosis Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Antituberculosis drugs are medicines used to treat tuberculosis, an infectious disease that can affect the lungs and other organs. Tuberculosis is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculae, a bacteria that is passed between people through the air. The disease can be cured with proper drug therapy, but because the bacteria may become resistant to any single drug, combinations of antituberculosis…

12 minute read

Antiulcer Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Interactions

Antiulcer drugs are a class of drugs, exclusive of the antibacterial agents, used to treat ulcers in the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine. Recurrent gastric and duodenal ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori infections, and are treated with combination treatments that incorporate antibiotic therapy with gastric acid suppression. Additionally, bismuth compounds have been used. T…

5 minute read

Antiviral Drugs - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Interactions

Antiviral drugs are medicines that cure or control virus infections. Antivirals are used to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibacterial drugs, which may cover a wide range of pathogens, antiviral agents tend to be narrow in spectrum, and have limited efficacy. Exclusive of the antiretroviral agents used in HIV (AIDS) therapy, there are currently only 11 antiviral drugs available, cove…

5 minute read

Anxiety - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Physical, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Anxiety is a multisystem response to a perceived threat or danger. It reflects a combination of biochemical changes in the body, the patient's personal history and memory, and the social situation. As far as we know, anxiety is a uniquely human experience. Other animals clearly know fear, but human anxiety involves an ability, to use memory and imagination to move backward and forward in ti…

19 minute read

Anxiety Disorders - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

The anxiety disorders are a group of mental disturbances characterized by anxiety as a central or core symptom. Although anxiety is a commonplace experience, not everyone who experiences it has an anxiety disorder. Anxiety is associated with a wide range of physical illnesses, medication side effects, and other psychiatric disorders. The revisions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

8 minute read

Aortic Aneurysm - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

An aneurysm is an abnormal bulging or swelling of a portion of a blood vessel. The aorta, which can develop these abnormal bulges, is the large blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. The aorta carries oxygen-rich blood to the body, and is therefore called an artery. Because the aorta is an artery, its walls are made of up three layers; a thin inner…

5 minute read

Aortic Dissection - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Aortic dissection is a rare, but potentially fatal, condition in which blood passes through the inner lining and between the layers of the aorta. The dissecting aorta usually does not burst, but has an abnormal second channel within it. A defect in the inner lining of the aorta allows an opening or tear to develop. The aorta is the main artery of the body and is an area of high blood pressure. Whe…

3 minute read

Aortic Valve Insufficiency - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

The aortic valve separates the left ventricle of the heart (the heart's largest pumping chamber) from the aorta, the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood out of the left ventricle to the rest of the body. In aortic valve insufficiency, the aortic valve becomes leaky, causing blood to flow backwards into the left ventricle. Aortic valve insufficiency occurs when this valve cannot prop…

3 minute read

Aortic Valve Stenosis - Definition, Description, Cause and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

When aortic valve stenosis occurs, the aortic valve, located between the aorta and left ventricle of the heart, is narrower than normal size. A normal aortic valve, when open, allows the free flow of blood from the left ventricle to the aorta. When the valve narrows, as it does with stenosis, blood flow is impeded. Because it is more difficult for blood to flow through the valve, there is increase…

4 minute read

Apgar Testing - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Normal results, Abnormal results

Apgar testing is the assessment of the newborn rating color, heart rate, stimulus response, muscle tone, and respirations on a scale of zero to two, for a maximum possible score of 10. It is performed twice, first at one minute and then again at five minutes after birth. Apgar scoring was originally developed in the 1950s by the anesthesiologist Virginia Apgar to assist practitioners attending a b…

6 minute read

Aphasia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Aphasia is condition characterized by either partial or total loss of the ability to communicate verbally or using written words. A person with aphasia may have difficulty speaking, reading, writing, recognizing the names of objects, or understanding what other people have said. Aphasia is caused by a brain injury, as may occur during a traumatic accident or when the brain is deprived of oxygen du…

12 minute read

Aplastic Anemia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Aplastic anemia is a disorder in which the bone marrow greatly decreases or stops production of blood cells. The bone marrow (soft tissue which is located within the hard outer shell of the bones) is responsible for the production of all the types of blood cells. The mature forms of these cells include red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body; white blood cells, which fight infectio…

5 minute read

Appendectomy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Appendectomy is the surgical removal of the appendix. The appendix is a worm-shaped hollow pouch attached to the cecum, the beginning of the large intestine. Appendectomies are performed to treat appendicitis, an inflamed and infected appendix. Since appendicitis occurs most commonly in males between the ages of 10-14 and in females between the ages of 15-19, appendectomy is most often performed d…

8 minute read

Appendicitis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, which is the worm-shaped pouch attached to the cecum, the beginning of the large intestine. The appendix has no known function in the body, but it can become diseased. Appendicitis is a medical emergency, and if it is left untreated the appendix may rupture and cause a potentially fatal infection. Appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency …

6 minute read

Applied Kinesiology - Definition, Purpose, Description, Precautions, Research and general acceptance

Applied kinesiology (AK) is the study of muscles and the relationship of muscle strength to health. It incorporates a system of manual muscle testing and therapy. AK is based on the theory that an organ dysfunction is accompanied by a specific muscle weakness. Diseases are diagnosed through muscle-testing procedures and then treated. AK is not the same as kinesiology, or biomechanics, which is the…

10 minute read

Arbovirus Encephalitis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Encephalitis is a serious inflammation of the brain. Arbovirus encephalitis is caused by a virus from the Arbovirus group. The term arbovirus stands for Arthropod-borne virus because these viruses are passed to humans by members of the phylum Arthropoda (which includes insects and spiders). Of the huge number of arboviruses known to exist, about 80 types are responsible for human disease. In addit…

4 minute read

Aromatherapy - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance

Aromatherapy is the therapeutic use of plant-derived, aromatic essential oils to promote physical and psychological well-being. It is sometimes used in combination with massage and other therapeutic techniques as part of a holistic treatment approach. Aromatherapy offers diverse physical and psychological benefits, depending on the essential oil or oil combination and method of application used. S…

13 minute read

Arrhythmias - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

An arrhythmia is an abnormality in the heart's rhythm, or heartbeat pattern. The heartbeat can be too slow, too fast, have extra beats, skip a beat, or otherwise beat irregularly. Arrhythmias are deviations from the normal cadence of the heartbeat, which cause the heart to pump improperly. The normal heartbeat starts in the right atrium, where the heart's natural pacemaker (the sinus…

8 minute read

Arterial Embolism - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

An embolus is a blood clot, bit of tissue or tumor, gas bubble, or other foreign body that circulates in the blood stream until it becomes stuck in a blood vessel. When a blood clot develops in an artery and remains in place, it is called a thrombosis. If all or part of the blockage breaks away and lodges in another part of the artery, it is called an embolism. Blockage of an artery in this manner…

4 minute read

Arteriovenous Fistula - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal channel or passage between an artery and a vein. An arteriovenous fistula is a disruption of the normal blood flow pattern. Normally, oxygenated blood flows to the tissue through arteries and capillaries. Following the release of oxygen in the tissues, the blood returns to the heart in veins. An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection of an artery an…

2 minute read

Arteriovenous Malformations - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Arteriovenous malformations are blood vessel defects that occur before birth when the fetus is growing in the uterus (prenatal development). The blood vessels appear as a tangled mass of arteries and veins. They do not possess the capillary (very fine blood vessels) bed which normally exists in the common area where the arteries and veins lie in close proximity (artery-vein interface). An arteriov…

9 minute read

Arthrography - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Arthrograpy is a procedure involving multiple x rays of a joint using a fluoroscope, or a special piece of x-ray equipment which shows an immediate x-ray image. A contrast medium (in this case, a contrast iodine solution) injected into the joint area helps highlight structures of the joint. Frequently, arthrography is ordered to determine the cause of unexplained joint pain. This fluoroscopic proc…

5 minute read

Arthroplasty - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results

Arthroplasty is surgery to relieve pain and restore range of motion by realigning or reconstructing a joint. The goal of arthroplasty is to restore the function of a stiffened joint and relieve pain. Two types of arthroplastic surgery exist. Joint resection involves removing a portion of the bone from a stiffened joint, creating a gap between the bone and the socket, to improve the range of motion…

2 minute read

Arthroscopic Surgery - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks

Arthroscopic surgery is a procedure to visualize, diagnose, and treat joint problems. The name is derived from the Greek words arthron, which means joint, and skopein, which means to look at. Arthroscopic surgery is used to identify, monitor, and diagnose joint injuries and disease; or to remove bone or cartilage or repair tendons or ligaments. Diagnostic arthroscopic surgery is performed when med…

5 minute read

Arthroscopy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

Arthroscopy is the examination of a joint, specifically, the inside structures. The procedure is performed by inserting a specifically designed illuminated device into the joint through a small incision. This instrument is called an arthroscope. The procedure of arthroscopy is primarily associated with the process of diagnosis. However, when actual repair is performed, the procedure is called arth…

7 minute read

Art Therapy - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Research and general acceptance

Art therapy, sometimes called creative arts therapy or expressive arts therapy, encourages people to express and understand emotions through artistic expression and through the creative process. Art therapy provides the client-artist with critical insight into emotions, thoughts, and feelings. Key benefits of the art therapy process include: Humans have expressed themselves with symbols throughout…

8 minute read

Asbestosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Asbestosis is chronic, progressive inflammation of the lung. It is not contagious. Asbestosis is a consequence of prolonged exposure to large quantities of asbestos, a material once widely used in construction, insulation, and manufacturing. When asbestos is inhaled, fibers penetrate the breathing passages and irritate, fill, inflame, and scar lung tissue. In advanced asbestosis,, the lungs shrink…

5 minute read

Ascites - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Ascites is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. Rapidly developing (acute) ascites can occur as a complication of trauma, perforated ulcer, appendicitis, or inflammation of the colon or other tube-shaped organ (diverticulitis). This condition can also develop when intestinal fluids, bile, pancreatic juices, or bacteria invade or inflame the smooth, transparent membrane that lines the …

5 minute read

Aspartate Aminotransferase Test - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparation, Risks, Normal results, Abnormal results

The Aspartate aminotransferase test measures levels of AST, an enzyme released into the blood when certain organs or tissues, particularly the liver and heart, are injured. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is also known as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). The determination of AST levels aids primarily in the diagnosis of liver disease. In the past, the AST test was used to diagnose …

3 minute read

Aspergillosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Aspergillosis refers to several forms of disease caused by a fungus in the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis fungal infections can occur in the ear canal, eyes, nose, sinus cavities, and lungs. In some individuals, the infection can even invade bone and the membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). Aspergillosis is primarily an infection of the lungs caused by the inhalation of…

9 minute read

Aspirin - Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosage, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions

Aspirin is a medicine that relieves pain and reduces fever. Aspirin is used to relieve many kinds of minor aches and pains—headaches, toothaches, muscle pain, menstrual cramps, the joint pain from arthritis, and aches associated with colds and flu. Some people take aspirin daily to reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack, or other heart problems. Aspirin—also known as acetylsalicylic…

6 minute read

Asthma - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Today asthma is viewed as a chronic (long-lasting) inflammatory disease of the airways. In those susceptible to asthma, this inflammation causes the airways to narrow periodically. This, in turn, produces wheezing and breathlessness, sometimes to the point where the patient gasps for air. Obstruction to air flow either stops spontaneously or responds to a wide range of treatments, but continuing i…

15 minute read

Astigmatism - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Astigmatism is the result of an inability of the cornea to properly focus an image onto the retina. The result is a blurred image. The cornea is the outermost part of the eye. It is a transparent layer that covers the colored part of the eye (iris), pupil, and lens. The cornea bends light and helps to focus it onto the retina where specialized cells (photo receptors) detect light and transmit nerv…

7 minute read

Aston-Patterning - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects, Research and general acceptance

Aston-Patterning is an integrated system of movement education, bodywork, ergonomic adjustments, and fitness training that recognizes the relationship between the body and mind for well being. It helps people who seek a remedy from acute or chronic pain by teaching them to improve postural and movement patterns. Aston-Patterning assists people in finding more efficient and less stressful ways of p…

3 minute read

Ataxia-Telangiectasia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), also called Louis-Bar syndrome, is a rare, genetic neurological disorder of childhood that progressively destroys part of the motor control area of the brain, leading to a lack of balance and coordination. A-T also affects the immune system and increases the risk of leukemia and lymphoma in affected individuals. The disorder first appeared in the medical literature in …

6 minute read

Atelectasis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Atelectasis is a collapse of lung tissue affecting part or all of one lung. This condition prevents normal oxygen absoption to healthy tissues. A computed tomography (CT) scan through a patient's chest.The collapsed lung appears at the right of the image. (Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Atelectasis can result from an obstruction (blockage) of the airways that affe…

5 minute read

Atherectomy - Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation, Aftercare, Risks

Atherectomy is a non-surgical procedure to open blocked coronary arteries or vein grafts by using a device on the end of a catheter to cut or shave away atherosclerotic plaque (a deposit of fat and other substances that accumulate in the lining of the artery wall). Atherectomy is performed to restore the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart, to relieve chest pain, and to prevent heart attacks. I…

4 minute read

Atherosclerosis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Atherosclerosis is the build up of a waxy plaque on the inside of blood vessels. In Greek, athere means gruel, and skleros means hard. Atherosclerosis is often called arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis (from the Greek arteria, meaning artery) is a general term for hardening of the arteries. Arteriosclerosis can occur in several forms, including atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, a progressive proce…

14 minute read

Athlete's Foot - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

A common fungus infection between the toes in which the skin becomes itchy and sore, cracking and peeling away. Athlete's foot (also known as tinea pedis or foot ringworm) can be treated, but it can be tenacious and difficult to clear up completely. Athlete's foot is a very common condition of itchy, peeling skin on the feet. In fact, it's so common that most people will have …

5 minute read

Athletic Heart Syndrome - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Prognosis

Athletic heart syndrome is the adaptation of an athlete's heart in response the physiologic stresses of strenuous physical training. It can be difficult to distinguish a significant medical condition from an athletic heart. The heart adapts to physical demands by enlarging, especially the left ventricle. Enlargement increases the cardiac output, the amount of blood pumped with each beat of …

2 minute read

Atkins Diet - Definition, Purpose, Description, Preparations, Precautions, Side effects

The Atkins diet is a high-protein, high-fat, and very low-carbohydrate regimen. It emphasizes meat, cheese, and eggs, while discouraging foods such as bread, pasta, fruit, and sugar. It is a form of ketogenic diet. The primary benefit of the diet is rapid and substantial weight loss. By restricting carbohydrate intake, the body will burn more fat stored in the body. Since there are no limits on th…

6 minute read

Atopic Dermatitis - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Eczema is a general term used to describe a variety of conditions that cause an itchy, inflamed skin rash. Atopic dermatitis, a form of eczema, is a non-contagious disorder characterized by chronically inflamed skin and sometimes intolerable itching. Atopic dermatitis refers to a wide range of diseases that are often associated with stress and allergic disorders that involve the respiratory system…

8 minute read

Atrial Ectopic Beats - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Atrial ectopic beats (AEB) refers to a contraction of the upper heart chamber which occurs before it would be expected. Atrial ectopic beats are also known as premature atrial beats, premature atrial complex (PAC), or atrial extrasystole. An AEB is usually a harmless disturbance in the normal rhythm of the heart. It can occur only occasionally, in a regular pattern, or several may occur in sequenc…

2 minute read